DELTA STATE BECE
DELTA STATE BECE HISTORY
Nationalism can be defined as a belief or ideology that emphasizes the unity, independence, and identity of a nation or group of people who share common cultural, linguistic, historical, or geographic characteristics. It often involves a strong sense of pride or loyalty to one’s own nation or cultural heritage and can be expressed through politics, economics, social and cultural attitudes.
(i) Education: The spread of Western education in Nigeria during the colonial period played a significant role in the growth of Nigerian nationalism. Educated Nigerians developed a sense of national identity and began to demand more rights and representation in government.
(ii) Colonialism: The oppressive and exploitative nature of British colonialism in Nigeria fueled a sense of resentment and resistance among Nigerians. The desire to resist colonial rule and assert their own national identity was a driving force in the growth of nationalism in Nigeria.
(iii) Economic exploitation: The British colonial authorities implemented policies that favored British economic interests over Nigerian economic interests. This led to widespread poverty and economic exploitation, which fueled nationalist sentiments.
(iv) Cultural unity: Despite the diversity of ethnic groups in Nigeria, there was a sense of cultural unity among Nigerians. This cultural unity was expressed through the common use of English as a language of communication and the spread of Christianity and Islam, which served as unifying forces.
Non-centralized states refer to political systems in which power is dispersed among various local or regional authorities, rather than being concentrated in a central government. In these types of states, local rulers or chiefs exercise a lot of autonomy in decision making.
(i) The Igbo people of Nigeria
(ii) The Yoruba people of Nigeria
(iii) The Ashanti people of Ghana
(iv) The Maasai people of Kenya and Tanzania
(v) The Khoisan people of Southern Africa
(vi):The San of Botswana and Namibia
(vii) The Tuareg people of the Sahara Desert.
(i) Location and resources: The Ghana Empire was strategically located at the intersection of major Saharan trade routes and had access to significant gold deposits.
(ii) Trade: The Ghana Empire established a lucrative trade network that brought gold, ivory, and slaves to North Africa. This brought wealth and prestige to the empire.
(iii) Military power: The Ghana Empire had a strong army that could protect its borders and defend against invading forces.
(iv) Political organization: The Ghana Empire had a centralized government that was able to maintain order and stability. The king had significant power and was supported by a council of advisors.
(v) Religion: The Ghana Empire was a center for the spread of Islam, which helped to establish cultural and intellectual ties with other Muslim societies.
(i) Expansion: Mansa Musa expanded Mali’s territory through military conquests, including the capture of Timbuktu and other important trading cities.
(ii) Wealth and trade: Mansa Musa’s famous pilgrimage to Mecca brought Mali to the attention of North African and Middle Eastern traders and helped to establish the empire as a center for wealth and trade.
(iii) Islamic influence: Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim and brought Islamic scholars and architects to Mali to build mosques, schools, and other religious buildings.
(iv) Unity: Mansa Musa worked to unite the different ethnic and cultural groups under his rule, creating a sense of national identity and loyalty.
(v) Patronage of the arts: Mansa Musa was a major patron of the arts, commissioning works of literature, music, and visual arts that helped to promote Mali’s cultural prestige.
Indirect rule system is a form of colonial government in which native rulers are appointed to carry out European colonial policies. Colonial officials, rather than ruling directly, govern through the traditional rulers, often allowing them significant autonomy in decision making.
(i)Cost saving: Indirect rule allowed the British to rule Nigeria with fewer officials and at less cost than direct rule.
(ii) Cultural understanding: The use of traditional rulers allowed the British to rule with the support and cooperation of local communities and to have a better understanding of local customs and traditions.
(iii) Maintenance of order: Indirect rule helped to maintain order and prevent rebellion by preserving the traditional power structures of Nigerian societies.
(iv) Political expediency: Indirect rule allowed the British to delegate responsibility for ruling to local elites while retaining ultimate control and authority.
(v) Textiles and other luxury goods
The Trans-Saharan trade played a significant role in West African history by connecting West Africa to North Africa and the Mediterranean world. It facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultural practices, and allowed West African states to accumulate wealth and prestige. The trade network helped to establish important trade cities like Timbuktu and facilitated the spread of Islam throughout the region. The Trans-Saharan trade also contributed to the development of political and economic systems, as well as the growth of local craft industries.