2023 NABTEB GCE Geography Obj & Essay Answers

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Draw the diagram

(i) Cocoa: Ondo in the southwestern region.
(ii) Oil Palm: Umuahia City in Eastern region.
(iii) Groundnut: Kano in the northern region.
(iv) Cotton: Katsina in the northern region.

Cocoa (for example):

(i) Cultivation Requirements:
– Well-drained soils with good aeration.
– Warm temperatures (between 24-28°C).
– High rainfall and humidity.

(ii) Economic Benefits:
– Export revenue from cocoa beans.
– Employment opportunities in cultivation and processing.
– Contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
– Infrastructure development in cocoa-producing areas.

(iii) Problems:
– Pests and diseases (e.g., black pod disease).
– Fluctuations in international cocoa prices.
– Aging cocoa plantations.

Draw the diagram

– Kano (City)
– Kaduna (City)

– Lagos (City)
– Ibadan (City)

– Port Harcourt (City)
– Enugu (City)

(i) Diversity: Nigerian industries are diverse, reflecting the country’s rich natural resources. Industries span sectors such as oil and gas, agriculture, manufacturing, and services.

(ii) Dependency on Oil: The Nigerian economy is heavily dependent on the oil and gas industry. This sector plays a crucial role in the country’s industrial landscape, contributing significantly to government revenue and foreign exchange earnings.

(iii) Challenges in Infrastructure: Nigerian industries face challenges related to inadequate infrastructure, including issues with power supply, transportation, and basic amenities. These challenges can hinder the growth and efficiency of industrial activities.

(iv) Role of Agriculture: Agriculture is a significant component of Nigerian industries. The agro-industrial sector involves the processing of raw agricultural products into finished goods. This sector is crucial for food security and provides employment opportunities for a large portion of the population.

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Draw the diagram

(i) Lagos Terminus
(ii) Kano Terminus
(iii) Port Harcourt Terminus
(iv) Enugu Terminus

(i) Itakpe Junction
(ii) Kaduna Junction
(iii) Zaria Junction
(iv) Ilorin Junction

(i) Accessibility and Connectivity: Roads provide a widespread and accessible network, connecting urban and rural areas. This connectivity is essential for the movement of goods, services, and people across the country.

(ii) Trade and Commerce: Road transport facilitates the movement of goods within the country, supporting trade and commerce. It enables businesses to transport raw materials to manufacturing units and finished products to markets efficiently.

(iii) Employment Generation: The road transport sector creates numerous job opportunities, from drivers and mechanics to those involved in maintenance, logistics, and infrastructure development. This contributes to employment generation and economic growth.

(iv) Integration of Rural Areas: Roads play a crucial role in integrating remote and rural areas into the mainstream economy. Improved road infrastructure allows for easier access to markets, healthcare, and education, leading to overall development in these regions.


Internal trade refers to buying and selling goods and services within a country’s borders, while external trade involves trade between different countries.

(i) Groundnuts
(ii) Sorghum

(i) Transportation Infrastructure: Improved road, rail, and air transport infrastructure facilitates the movement of goods between the northern and southern regions.

(ii) Market Access: Open and accessible markets provide opportunities for traders from both regions to engage in buying and selling activities.

(iii) Government Policies: Supportive government policies and trade agreements can encourage and facilitate internal trade between regions.

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(iv) Cultural Exchange: Cultural ties and historical connections between northern and southern Nigeria can foster trade relationships by creating a sense of familiarity and trust.

(i) Poor Infrastructure: Inadequate transportation infrastructure, such as poorly maintained roads and limited rail connectivity, hampers the smooth movement of goods.

(ii) Trade Barriers: Non-tariff barriers, bureaucratic hurdles, and inconsistencies in regulations at different levels of government can impede the flow of goods within the country.

(i) Net Migration
Net Migration = Immigration – Emigration
Net Migration = 1,700,000 – 2,300,000
Net Migration = -600,000

(ii) Country’s Present Population
Present Population = Previous Population + Births – Deaths + Net Migration

Present Population = 200,000,000 + 1,800,000 – 500,000 – 600,000

Present Population = 200,000,000 + 700,000

Present Population = 200,700,000

Population Density = Total Population / Land Area

Population Density = 200,000,000 / 920,000

Population Density = 217.39 people per square kilometer

(i) Lack of Education: In many developing countries, particularly in rural areas, there is limited access to education. Lack of awareness about family planning methods and their benefits can contribute to higher birth rates.

(ii) Economic Factors: In some developing nations, children are considered as a source of labor and economic support for the family. In the absence of social security systems, having more children is seen as a strategy for ensuring economic stability in old age.

(iii) Cultural and Religious Influences: Cultural and religious beliefs can play a significant role in shaping family size norms. In some societies, there may be cultural or religious expectations to have larger families, and contraception may be discouraged.

(iv) High Infant Mortality Rates: In areas with high infant mortality rates, families may choose to have more children to increase the chances of some surviving to adulthood. This mindset contributes to a higher overall birth rate.

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A seaport is a harbor or port located on the coast that provides facilities for ships to load and unload cargo, while a river port is a port located on a river or inland waterway that allows ships to navigate and transport goods inland.

A landlocked country is a nation that is entirely surrounded by land, with no coastline or direct access to open seas or oceans.

(i) Limited Access to Maritime Trade: Landlocked countries face challenges in accessing international markets and participating in maritime trade, as they must rely on neighboring countries’ ports for import and export activities.

(ii) Dependency on Neighbors: Landlocked nations are dependent on their neighboring countries for transit routes, making them vulnerable to political and economic decisions of these transit nations.

(iii) Higher Transportation Costs: The absence of a direct coastline often results in higher transportation costs due to the need for transshipment and multiple modes of transportation to reach global markets.

(i) Infrastructure Challenges: Insufficient and underdeveloped airport infrastructure in many tropical African countries hampers the growth of air transport.

(ii) Financial Constraints: Limited financial resources and investment in the aviation sector hinder the acquisition of modern aircraft, technology, and the improvement of facilities.

(iii) Political Instability: Political instability in some regions of tropical Africa can affect the operations of airlines, create uncertainties, and deter foreign investments in the aviation sector.

(iv) Market Size and Demand: The relatively smaller market size and lower demand for air travel in some tropical African countries can make it challenging for airlines to operate profitably and attract investment.

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