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2023 NABTEB GEOGRAPHY
=GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT: EXPLOITATION OF PETROLEUM=
Method of mining:
(i) Exploration: Geologists study rock formations and geological structures to identify areas with the potential for oil accumulation.
(ii) Drilling: Once a potential oil reservoir is identified, drilling operations commence.
(iii) Extraction: After drilling, oil extraction begins using various extraction techniques
(iv) Refining: Once the oil is extracted, it undergoes refining processes to separate it into various components, such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and other petroleum products.
(i) Petroleum serves as a raw material for the production of numerous industrial products
(ii) The by products are used in making insecticides, petroleum jelly, lubricating oil etc
(iii) It provides foreign exchange earnings to the economy
(iv) The petroleum industry creates job opportunities across multiple sectors
Problems of exploration and exploitation:
(i) Inadequate skilled labour
(ii) Neglect of other sectors of the economy
(iii) Inadequate capital
(iv) Depletion of reserves
(v) Mining hazards
(vi) Fluctuations in world market prices
Laffia and Jos
Rainfall pattern and vegetation zone are related to each other, but they are two distinct concepts.
Rainfall pattern refers to the amount, frequency, and timing of rainfall in a particular area. Different regions around the world have different rainfall patterns, which can affect the overall climate and ecosystem of the area. For example, tropical rainforests typically have a very high amount of rainfall year-round, while deserts have very little rainfall and often experience long periods of drought.
Vegetation zone, on the other hand, refers to the different types of plant communities that are found in different regions around the world. Vegetation zones are determined by a combination of factors, including climate, soil, and topography. Different regions may have different vegetation zones based on these factors. For example, the Amazon rainforest is a vegetation zone characterized by dense, lush, and diverse plant life, while the Arctic tundra is a vegetation zone characterized by short, grassy plants and lichens.
So, while rainfall patterns can have a significant impact on vegetation zones, they are not the same thing. The vegetation zone describes the types of plant communities found in an area, while rainfall pattern refers to the amount, frequency, and timing of rainfall that can influence the development and maintenance of those plant communities.
1. Farming: Nigeria is mainly an agricultural society, and farming is the most common agricultural practice in the country. It involves the cultivation of crops such as yam, cassava, maize, rice, beans, vegetables, and fruit trees.
2. Livestock rearing: Livestock rearing involves the raising of animals like cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry for their meat, milk, eggs, wool, and other products. In Nigeria, livestock rearing is mostly done in the northern part of the country, with large scale cattle ranches.
3. Fishing: Fishing is another agricultural practice in Nigeria, undertaken mainly in rivers, lakes, and along the coastal areas. Fish is an important source of protein for most Nigerians and is highly consumed by both urban and rural dwellers.
4. Forestry: Forestry involves the management of forests and the production of wood, timber, and non-timber forest products. Nigeria has a significant forest cover and depends heavily on timber for its construction industry, furniture and for paper processing.
5. Agro-processing: With a thriving agricultural sector comes agro-processing – the conversion of agricultural products into more marketable goods. Agro-processing involves various activities such as canning, juicing, fermentation, milling, and food packaging. It adds value to agricultural products and provides more employment opportunities in the country.
There are numerous challenges facing agriculture in Nigeria, but here are five of the most pressing issues:
1. Dependence on rain-fed agriculture: Many farmers in Nigeria still rely on rain-fed agriculture, which makes them vulnerable to weather variations, including droughts, floods and desertification. This dependence has caused a reduction in crop yields and even abandoned lands due to inconsistent rainfall.
2. Poor infrastructure: agricultural productivity in Nigeria is negatively affected by poor infrastructure such as bad roads, lack of storage facilities, irrigation, and inadequate power supply, which makes it difficult to transport crops, control post-harvest losses, and store agricultural products for longer periods.
3. Inadequate access to financing: Most farmers in Nigeria lack access to finance, which limits their ability to purchase inputs such as fertilizers and improved seeds that can increase yields, mechanize farming and reduce post-harvest losses.
4. Poor value chain and low market access: Inadequate market accessibility limits the income potential of farmers in Nigeria. Poor market infrastructure and a fragmented market structure limit the distribution of farm products to both domestic and international markets, resulting in low prices, especially for rural farmers.
5. Insecurity and conflicts: Conflicts, such as farmer-herder clashes, insecurity, and terrorism, are widespread across Nigeria, making farming activities difficult, especially in some parts of the country that are affected by insurgency and banditry. Insecurity leads to loss of lives and property, and destruction of farmlands, making it unattractive for investment, and can cause farmer migration.
The land tenure system in Nigeria has been plagued with several problems that have largely hindered the development of the agricultural sector, land usage, planning, and land management. Here are three problems associated with the land tenure system in Nigeria:
1. Insecurity of land tenure: The mode of land ownership in Nigeria is customized from customary land-administration systems which may not have clearly defined ownership titles or rights of access to land. The land tenure system in Nigeria is flawed, leaving gaps and discrepancies that result in disputes, land grabbing, or encroachment. It also makes it difficult for people to acquire land legally with the appropriate documentation.
2. Dispute resolution: Land disputes are common in Nigeria, and they can result in claiming and counter-claiming of ownership rights. The existing legal framework for the settlement of disputes is slow and can be ineffective, which hinders prompt resolution of disputes and stirs up more issues.
3. Land fragmentation: The Nigerian land tenure system allows multiple rights of ownership on the same parcel of land, making it difficult to determine ownership rights and can affect the development of agriculture, particularly for smallholders. The majority of farmers in Nigeria are smallholders who hold plots of land close together. However, land fragmentation imposes significant challenges in reaping economies of scale, and can become detrimental to sustainable agricultural practices, land use planning, and management.
In summary, insecurity of tenure, lack of effective dispute resolution, and land fragmentation are some of the significant problems that limit the development of the land tenure system in Nigeria.
Cattle rearing is mostly practiced in Northern Nigeria due to several reasons, including:
1. Ecological suitability: Northern Nigeria is arid and semi-arid, where the vegetation consists mainly of savannah grasslands stretching from the Sahel region to the Guinea savannah. The vegetation provides grazing lands for the cattle, making it suitable for cattle rearing as compared to the southern areas, which are forested and have limited grazing potential.
2. Cultural orientation: Cattle rearing is prevalent in northern Nigeria because of the cultural attachment to the Fulani people. The Fulani are a pastoralist ethnic group and are traditionally known for their nomadic lifestyle, where they move with their cattle in search of grazing lands, water, and other resources necessary for their survival.
3. Economic viability: Cattle rearing is a profitable venture, and most of the northern region’s populace depends on it as their primary source of income. The region’s economy is agro-based, and the trade-in cattle is an essential part of it, as it provides employment opportunities and serves as a source of food, hides and skin, and other by-products.
4. Political influence: Northern Nigeria has played a significant role in Nigeria’s political history and has current prominent political figures. The influential political class has actively promoted the socio-economic importance of cattle rearing and has supported its continued practice. This support has encouraged large-scale cattle ranching, with more investments flowing into the industry, creating more jobs, and boosting the national economy.
1. Higher population density: Urban settlements are characterized by higher population densities compared to rural areas. Due to the concentration of people in cities, urban areas tend to have more complex social and economic structures.
2. Large and diverse population: Urban settlements are home to a diverse population, consisting of people from different cultural, religious, and socio-economic backgrounds. The large population size and diversity present in urban areas create a unique social landscape that fosters creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship.
3. Availability of urban infrastructure: Urban settlements have well-developed infrastructure facilities such as electricity, water supply, sewage systems, waste management, and health facilities. These facilities are usually provided by local or national governments and are necessary for the provision of basic services and a high quality of life for urban residents.
4. High-rise buildings and skyscrapers: To accommodate the high population density, urban settlements typically have high-rise buildings and skyscrapers as they provide more efficient use of space.
5. Commercial activities: Urban settlements are centers of commerce, with various commercial activities, including markets, shopping malls, banks, and industries. These activities bring together people, goods, and services, promoting employment, economic growth, and wealth creation.
The hierarchy of urban settlements according to size is as follows:
1. Hamlets: These are small settlements with a population of fewer than 100 people. Hamlets are usually rural settlements and are based around farming or other primary activities.
2. Villages: Villages are larger than hamlets and have a population of between 100 and 1,000 people. They have basic social and economic infrastructure and their economy might depend on farming, small businesses and services like basic health centers.
3. Towns: Towns are larger than villages with a population of between 1,000 and 20,000 people. They have more developed social and economic infrastructure, which includes government offices, schools, hospitals, and market centers. Towns can also provide small-scale industrial manufacturing and services such as banking facility, post office, cinema halls or even shopping malls.
4. Cities: Cities have a population of over 20,000 people and are characterized by more advanced social and economic infrastructure, a high level of commercial activity, and cultural exchanges. They provide higher levels of education, healthcare and have bigger industries.
5. Metropolis or Megalopolis: A metropolis is a large urban area with a population of over 1 million people, with high-rise buildings, modern infrastructure and centers of large industrial, commercial, financial and cultural activity. Megalopolis is a region comprising several metropolitan areas.
A nucleated settlement is a type of settlement pattern that is characterized by all or most of its buildings clustered together around a central point. In a nucleated settlement, there is a clear concentration of houses, buildings, and other structures in one or a few areas, with more dispersed population or agricultural land surrounding them.
Nucleated settlements can take different forms, including villages, towns, small cities, and even some larger metropolitan areas. The characteristic feature of nucleated settlements is their compactness, making it easy for people to communicate and access the resources needed for survival and convenience. Also, it fosters social interaction and, in some cases, communal living.
In a nucleated settlement, the central point around which all buildings are clustered can be a natural feature such as a water source, or an economic activity such as a market center, a place of worship, or a transportation node. Often, nucleated settlements show greater diversity in land uses, with distinct residential, commercial, and industrial areas.
Nucleated settlements usually grow over time as more people move in, and they often develop new buildings or parts of buildings around the original core. This pattern can lead to significant population growth and urbanisation over time, as the concentration of people and services attracts more businesses and industries, and other amenities.
There are several benefits of a nucleated settlement, some of which are:
1. Efficient use of resources: Nucleated settlements are more efficient in the use of resources such as water, energy, and land. By having all buildings concentrated in one area, the distances for the provision of these utilities to all residents or businesses are shorter, leading to fewer infrastructure costs and less wastage of resources.
2. Social interaction: A major benefit of nucleated settlements is the close proximity of people to each other. This leads to enhanced social interaction, which is inherent in such settlements. The resulting social bond is important for the formation of a strong, cohesive society. Social interaction also fosters trust and cooperation among people, resulting in easier coordination in times of crises and the promotion of cultural exchange.
3. Accessibility: Nucleated settlements provide better accessibility to essential services such as transportation, education, healthcare, and commercial services, as these facilities are usually located within the settlement or its immediate surroundings. Residents can easily access these facilities, hence improving their quality of life, leading to better standards of living and well-being of residents. Their proximity also helps reduce associated costs of accessing some of these facilities.
Transportation refers to the movement of goods or people from one place to another. It involves the use of different modes of transport, such as cars, trains, buses, ships, airplanes, and bicycles. The primary goal of transportation is to provide an efficient and reliable means of moving people and goods to support economic, social, and cultural activities.
1. Efficient Transportation
2. Safety and reliability
1. High initial cost
2. Limited flexibility
1. Efficient transportation: Pipeline transportation is one of the most efficient ways to move large quantities of liquid or gas over long distances, as it can transport up to millions of gallons or cubic feet per day without the need for constant reloading or refueling.
2. Safety and reliability: Pipelines are designed to be safe and reliable, with a low risk of accidents or spills compared to other forms of transportation. They are also less susceptible to disruptions caused by inclement weather, traffic, or other external factors.
1. High initial cost: Building pipeline infrastructure is expensive, and it requires significant investment upfront to construct the network of pipelines, pumping stations, and other facilities. These costs can pose a challenge for companies seeking to enter the pipeline transportation industry.
2. Limited flexibility: Once pipelines have been installed, they are fixed and cannot be easily redirected or expanded. This can make it difficult to respond to changes in demand or fluctuations in supply, and may lead to operational inefficiencies or underutilization of the infrastructure.
1. Facilitating Trade: Transportation plays a crucial role in facilitating domestic and international trade. It enables the movement of goods and services to various destinations, making trade possible. The development of modern transportation networks has contributed significantly to the growth of international trade and has allowed businesses to expand their markets.
2. Employment generation: The transportation sector provides employment opportunities for millions of people engaged in various activities, such as driving, maintenance, logistics, and administration. The development of transport infrastructure can create new jobs and generate income in local communities, thus promoting economic growth.
3. Connects people and markets: Transportation connects people living in different regions, urban and rural areas, facilitating the exchange of goods, services, and ideas, and promoting economic integration and social cohesion. By improving accessibility and mobility, transportation also promotes innovation and entrepreneurship, as it creates new business opportunities and markets.
4. Enhancing industrialization: Transportation is a vital factor in promoting industrialization. It helps in the movement of raw materials, semifinished and finished products, and machinery from one location to another. It facilitates access to markets and suppliers and thus enables industries to expand their production capacity and grow.
5. Boosting tourism and services: Transport networks, such as airports, highways, and railways, facilitate access to tourist destinations, promote the development of the hospitality and travel industry, and enhance the overall service sector. Transport infrastructure provides greater accessibility, which attracts tourists and visitors, helping to stimulate economic growth in the tourism sector and the service industry in general.