NECO Biology (2023) Objective & Essays Answers


Biology 2023





The cell theory states that all living organisms are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and all cells come from pre-existing cells.

(1aii) (Pick any two)

i. Robert Hooke (1665)
ii. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674)
iii. Matthias Schleiden (1838)
iv. Theodor Schwann (1839)

(1bi) Pick any five(5)
i. Pollinated by insects
ii. Usually have brightly colored petals
iii. Have large amounts of nectar and pollen
iv. Have a wide variety of shapes and sizes
v. Have a shallow nectar cup
vi. Have a strong scent to attract insects
vii. Have a large number of stamens and pistils to ensure cross-pollination

I. Ginger – Rhizomes
II. Banana – Offsets/Suckers
III. Sweet potato – Tubers

i. Mouth: The bread is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes such as amylase that break down the carbohydrates in the bread into simpler sugars.

ii. Esophagus: The bread and saliva mixture is swallowed and passes down the esophagus to the stomach.

iii. Stomach: The stomach further breaks down the carbohydrates in the bread with acids and enzymes.

iv. Small Intestine: The broken-down carbohydrates are absorbed into the small intestine and converted into glucose and other simple sugars.

v. Large Intestine: The glucose and other simple sugars are absorbed into the large intestine, where they are further broken down by bacteria into fatty acids and other substances.

vi. Rectum: The fatty acids and other substances are absorbed into the rectum and passed out of the body as feces.

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I. Rivers
II. Streams
III. Ponds
IV. Lakes
V. Wetlands

(Pick any Two)

*Complete Metamorphosis:*
i• Egg stage, Larva stage, Pupa stage, Adult stage
ii• Development is gradual
iii• Larvae and adults have different shapes and characteristics
iv• Wings develop inside the pupal stage
v• Development is slow

*Incomplete Metamorphosis:*
i• Egg stage, Nymph stage, Adult stage
ii• Development is abrupt
iii• Nymphs and adults have similar shapes and characteristics
iv• Wings develop outside the nymph stage
v• Development is fast

NECO 2023 Biology Practical Answers


3b (loading)…..

(3ci) Pick any four

i. Over-Fertilization: Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can deplete the soil of essential nutrients and minerals, leading to poor soil fertility.

ii. Overgrazing: Overgrazing of livestock can cause soil erosion, compaction, and nutrient depletion.

iii. Deforestation: Removal of trees and other vegetation from the land can cause soil erosion and nutrient depletion.

iv. Monocropping: Growing the same crop in the same place year after year can lead to depletion of soil nutrients and increase the risk of pests and diseases.

v. Acid Rain: Acid rain can leach essential nutrients from the soil, leading to poor soil fertility.

Pick any two
i. Loss of Soil Fertility: Soil pollution can lead to loss of soil fertility due to the accumulation of toxic chemicals and other pollutants.

ii. Loss of Biodiversity: Soil pollution can lead to decreased biodiversity due to the destruction of habitats for organisms that rely on healthy soil.

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iii. Contamination of Groundwater: Soil pollution can lead to contamination of groundwater due to the leaching of pollutants into the soil.

iv. Health Risks: Soil pollution can lead to health risks for humans and animals due to the presence of toxic chemicals in the soil.

v. Loss of Agricultural Productivity: Soil pollution can lead to decreased agricultural productivity due to the presence of pollutants in the soil.

(i) Crop diversity: Planting different crops in the same field over time to avoid the buildup of pests and diseases.
(ii) Soil health: Planting crops that have different nutrient requirements to maintain soil fertility and prevent soil erosion.
(iii) Pest management: Planting crops that are not susceptible to the same pests and diseases in succession.

(i) Reduced leaves or spines to minimize water loss through transpiration.
(ii) Thick cuticles and waxy coatings to reduce water loss through the epidermis.
(iii) Deep roots to tap into underground water sources.
(iv) CAM photosynthesis to reduce water loss during photosynthesis.
(v) Ability to enter dormancy during drought periods.

(i) Similarity in bone structure between birds and reptiles, especially in the skull and pelvis.
(ii) Presence of scales on bird feet and legs, which are also found in reptiles.
(iii) Similarity in egg-laying and incubation between birds and reptiles.

(i) Detoxification of harmful substances in the blood.
(ii) Production of bile to aid in digestion.
(iii) Storage of glycogen, vitamins, and minerals.
(iv) Regulation of blood glucose levels.
(v) Production of blood clotting factors.

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(i) Reforestation: Planting new trees in areas where forests have been cleared or degraded.
(ii) Reduced impact logging: Using sustainable logging practices that minimize damage to the forest ecosystem.
(iii) Protected areas: Establishing and maintaining protected areas for wildlife and biodiversity conservation.
(iv) Community forestry: Encouraging local communities to manage forests sustainably for their own benefit and for the benefit of future generations.



(i) Protection: the calyx protects the flower bud before it opens and the developing fruit after fertilization.
(ii) Support: the sepals of the calyx can provide support for the petals and reproductive structures.

(i) Insulin: regulates blood sugar levels.
(ii) Estrogen: regulates female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics.
(iii) Testosterone: regulates male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics.
(iv) Adrenaline: prepares the body for “fight or flight” response to stress.
(v) Melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycles.

(i) Gene therapy: correcting genetic disorders by introducing functional genes into the patient’s cells.
(ii) Predictive medicine: using genetic testing to identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases and develop personalized prevention or treatment plans.

(i) Large surface area: to maximize light absorption.
(ii) Thin and flat shape: to reduce the distance that light needs to penetrate into the leaf.
(iii) Chlorophyll pigments: to absorb light energy and convert it into chemical energy.



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