WAEC 2023 Fisheries Essays & Objective Questions And Answers

FISHERIES
01-10: CBDADCCCAB
11-20: CACBCBDAAC
21-30: BCDACCCDBB
31-40: DCDCABAAAC

COMPLETED

FISHERIES INSTRUCTIONS
ANSWER FOUR QUESTIONS IN ALL

QUESTION 1
QUESTION 2
QUESTION 4
QUESTION 6

COMPLETED

(1a)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Fishing nets
(ii) Fishing lines
(iii) Fishing traps
(iv) Fishing hooks
(v) Fishing spears
(vi) Fishing harpoons
(vii) Fishing seines

(1b)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Ensure the water quality is suitable for the fingerlings, including temperature, oxygen levels, and pH.
(ii) Quarantine the fingerlings before introducing them to the main fish population to prevent the spread of diseases or parasites.
(iii) Handle the fingerlings carefully to minimize stress and injuries during the stocking process.
(iv) Gradually acclimate the fingerlings to the new water environment by adjusting the temperature and gradually introducing them to the water.
(v) Monitor the fingerlings closely after stocking to ensure they are adapting well and provide appropriate feed and nutrition.

(1c)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Maintaining optimal water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, pH, and ammonia levels.
(ii) Providing appropriate and nutritious feed for the fry, such as microalgae or finely ground commercial fish feed.
(iii) Regular monitoring of water quality parameters and adjusting them as needed.
(iv) Maintaining a suitable stocking density to prevent overcrowding and competition for resources.
(v) Regular cleaning and maintenance of the nursery tank to remove excess waste and prevent the build-up of harmful bacteria or toxins.
(vi) Implementing a proper lighting regime to simulate day and night cycles, which helps regulate the fry’s behavior and growth.
(vii) Regularly grading or sorting the fry based on size to minimize size-related competition and ensure uniform growth.
(viii) Minimizing stress on the fry by avoiding sudden changes in water parameters or handling them gently during any necessary transfers or procedures.

(1d)
(i) Fishermen
(ii) Wholesalers
(iii) Retailers

(2ai)
Fish packaging is the process of appropriately packing and preserving fish and seafood products for storage, transportation, and sale.

(2aii)
(PICK FOUR ONLY)
(i) Plastic Bags
(ii) Styrofoam Trays
(iii) Vacuum-Sealed Pouches
(iv) Wax-Coated Cardboard Boxes
(v) Ice Packs or Gel Packs

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(2aiii)
(PICK TWO ONLY)
(i) It provides adequate protection to the fish during handling
(ii) It maintains the freshness of the fish
(iii) It ensures the safety of the fish and the consumers
(iv) It is strong and durable enough to withstand the rigors of transportation and storage
(v) It is compatible with the type of fish being packaged

(2b)
(i) Subsistence fisheries involves small-scale operations WHILE Industrial fisheries involves large-scale operations.
(ii) Subsistence fisheries helps secure food for local consumption WHILE Industrial fisheries are driven by economic motives.
(iii) Subsistence fisheries rely on rudimentary fishing methods WHILE Industrial fisheries employ advanced technology and equipment.
(iv) Subsistence fisheries have a lower environmental impact WHILE Industrial fisheries have significant environmental impacts.

(2c)
(PICK FOUR ONLY)
(i) Water Quality
(ii) Oxygenation
(iii) Density and Space
(iv) Temperature Control
(v) Duration of Transport
(vi) Container Design

(2d)
(PICK FOUR ONLY)
(i) Wood Chips
(ii) Sawdust
(iii) Wood Pellets
(iv) Herbs and Spices
(v) Tea Leaves
(vi) Fruit Peels

(2ai) Fish packaging refers to the process of properly wrapping and preparing fish for storage, transportation, and sale. It involves using appropriate materials and techniques to ensure the fish remains fresh, protected, and of high quality throughout its journey from the source to the consumer.

(ii)
1. Styrofoam containers
2. Vacuum-sealed bags
3. Plastic liners/wraps
4. Ice packs

(iii)
1. Protection
2. Preservation

(b)TABULATE

1.*Subsistence fisheries* are small-scale operations conducted by individuals or communities for their own consumption or local trade. *Industrial fisheries* involve large-scale operations with commercial purposes, targeting larger volumes of fish for wider distribution and sale.

2. *Subsistence fisheries* often use traditional, basic fishing methods and equipment such as nets, lines, and small boats. *Industrial fisheries* employ advanced technology, such as large fishing vessels, trawlers, and sophisticated gear, to efficiently catch and process larger quantities of fish.

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3. *Subsistence fisheries* primarily focus on meeting the immediate food and livelihood needs of the fishing community. The catch is usually consumed locally or traded in nearby markets. *Industrial fisheries* are profit-driven enterprises that target a wider market, supplying fish to regional, national, or international markets.

4. *Subsistence fisheries* may have limited regulation and management measures, often relying on traditional practices and local agreements. *Industrial fisheries* are subject to more comprehensive regulations and management systems imposed by governments and international bodies to ensure sustainable fishing practices, resource conservation, and environmental protection.

(c)
1. Water quality
2. Handling and stress
3. Transportation duration
4. Container design
(d)
1. Wood chips
2. Sawdust
3. Tea leaves
4. Herbs and spices

(4ai)
(PICK ANY ONE)

Fish pond fertilization refers to the practice of adding nutrients to a fish pond to enhance the growth of phytoplankton and zooplankton, which serve as a natural food source for fish.

OR

Fish pond fertilization is addition of nutrients to enhance plankton growth, promoting a healthy food chain, and increasing fish production in aquaculture systems.

(4aii)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) It is essential to assess the existing water quality in the pond before applying any fertilizers.
(ii) The size and depth of the pond play a role in determining the amount of fertilizer needed.
(iii) The number of fish stocked in the pond is a critical consideration.
(iv) It is important to select a suitable type of fertilizer that provides the necessary nutrients for the pond and the fish.
(v) Fish farmers should consider the potential environmental impact of fertilizers on the surrounding ecosystem.

(4b)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Low levels of dissolved oxygen can lead to increased stress among fish.
(ii) It limit their ability to efficiently convert food into energy, resulting in slower growth rates.
(iii) Low dissolved oxygen can cause fish to exhibit abnormal behavior.
(iv) Low dissolved oxygen can contribute to the increase of harmful algal blooms.
(v) It can lead to disturbed aquatic ecosystem

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(4c)
(i) It allows for better distribution of nutrients from uneaten feed and fish accumulated waste throughout the pond, benefiting the overall ecosystem and promoting natural nutrient cycling.
(ii) Allowing some time between feeding and water drainage helps maintain more stable water conditions

(4d)
(i) Inshore fisheries
(ii) Offshore fisheries
(iii) Deep-sea fisheries

(4e)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Natural water sources
(ii) Rainwater
(iii) Groundwater
(iv) Surface runoff
(v) Irrigation canals
(vi) Water reservoirs

*5a)*
[PICK TWO ONLY]
1.Hand Netting
2.Seining
3.Fish traps

*5bi)*
1.Gutting and Cleaning
2.Filleting
3.Drying and Smoking
4.Freezing
5.Canning

[PICK ANY THREE]
*5bii)*
1.Drying
2.Salting
3.Fermentation
4.Smoking
5.Pickling
6.Canning

*5c)*
1.Poor water quality
2.Insufficient oxygen
3.Disease and parasites
4.Poor nutrition
5.Predation

*5d)
Algal bloom refers to the rapid growth or proliferation of algae in bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, or coastal areas.

(6a)
[PICK ANY FOUR]
(i) Poor quality water in the pond or aquarium
(ii) Overcrowding of fish in the pond or aquarium
(iii) Poor water management practices such as inadequate filtration and aeration
(iv) Disease outbreaks among the fish
(v) Predation by other animals such as birds or mammals
(vi) Feed management issues such as poor nutrition or overfeeding

(6bi)
[PICK ANY ONE]
(i) Adding agricultural lime or dolomite to the water to increase its alkalinity
(ii) Installing aeration devices to increase oxygen levels in the water
(iii) Changing the water more frequently to dilute the acidic components
(iv) Avoiding the use of acid-based fertilizers near the pond area
(v) Adding crushed oyster shells or coral to the pond to increase alkalinity
(vi) Monitoring and adjusting the water chemistry regularly to maintain optimal conditions

(6bii)
[PICK ANY THREE]
(i) Agricultural lime
(ii) Dolomite
(iii) Ash from wood or rice husks
(iv) Crushed coral or shell
(vi) Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
(vi) Calcium carbonate (chalk or limestone)

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