WAEC 2023 Geography Objectives And Essays Answers Now Available- May/June




(i) Shortage Of Raw Materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.
(ii) Political Instability: Frequent changes in governments and incessant civil wars in african countries discourage foreign investors.
(iii) Inadequate skilled man-power: Skilled man-power required for high industrial growth is grossly inadequate in developing countries.
(iv) Poor Management: Corruption, embezzlement and negligence of duty are very common in developed countries and these are indicators of poor management.
(v) Competition from foreign goods: Because of the high quality of foreign goods other industries usually not be patronised.

(i) Acquisition of Skills: Skills should be acquired by people through regular training.
(ii) Good government policies: There should be good government policies to protect the industries.
(iii) Establishment of more power plants: Power plants such as thermal electricity plants should be established to boost power supply to industries.
(iv) Increase in wages/salaries of workers: There should be increase in wages/salaries of workers in industries to boost their morales and increase productivity.
(v) Creation of Industrial Zones: These will also provide conducive environment with all the infrastructure facilities for industrialization.

(i) Agricultural economy: Rural settlements in tropical Africa are predominantly agrarian, with agriculture being the primary economic activity. People rely on subsistence farming, livestock rearing, and small-scale agricultural production for their livelihoods.
(ii) Traditional housing: Rural settlements often have traditional housing structures made of locally available materials such as mud, thatch, or wood. These structures are designed to suit the local climate and cultural preferences.
(iii) Limited infrastructure: Rural settlements in tropical Africa often lack adequate infrastructure compared to urban areas. Basic amenities like electricity, clean water supply, healthcare facilities, and transportation networks may be limited or lacking altogether.
(iv) Close-knit communities: Rural settlements typically have close-knit communities with strong social ties and communal values. People often live in extended family units and engage in collective activities such as farming, celebrations, and community decision-making.
(v) Limited access to services: Due to their remote locations, rural settlements may have limited access to essential services such as education, healthcare, and government institutions. Access to quality education and healthcare facilities may be inadequate, resulting in challenges for rural residents.

(i) Market access: Rural settlements rely on urban settlements as market centers for selling their agricultural produce and acquiring necessary goods and services that are not available locally. Urban centers act as economic hubs where rural farmers can sell their surplus produce and purchase items they cannot produce themselves.
(ii) Supply of goods and services: Rural settlements depend on urban settlements for the supply of goods and services that are not available in rural areas. This includes items like machinery, fertilizers, construction materials, healthcare services, and educational resources.
(iii) Employment opportunities: Many rural inhabitants depend on urban settlements for employment opportunities. People may migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of better job prospects and higher wages, particularly in non-agricultural sectors such as manufacturing, construction, and services.
(iv) Transportation and connectivity: Rural settlements often rely on urban centers for transportation and connectivity. Urban areas typically have better road networks, public transportation systems, and access to telecommunications infrastructure. Rural residents may travel to urban areas for education, healthcare, and to connect with wider social networks.
(v) Government services and administration: Rural settlements often depend on urban settlements for government services and administration. Government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities, and other essential services are usually concentrated in urban areas. Rural residents may need to travel to urban centers to access these services or engage with government institutions.

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(i) Efficient Movement of Goods: Rail transportation allows for the efficient movement of goods across long distances. It can accommodate large quantities of cargo, making it an ideal mode of transport for industries such as agriculture, mining, and manufacturing in tropical Africa. This efficiency helps stimulate trade and economic growth.

(ii) Reduced Congestion: Compared to road transportation, rail systems help alleviate congestion on major highways. By diverting a significant portion of freight traffic to rail, the congestion on roads is reduced, resulting in smoother traffic flow, decreased travel times, and improved road safety.

(iii) Lower Environmental Impact: Rail transportation is more environmentally friendly compared to road transport. Trains emit less carbon dioxide per ton of freight compared to trucks, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This advantage is crucial for tropical Africa’s sustainability efforts and can contribute to mitigating climate change impacts.

(iv) Enhanced Connectivity: Rail networks provide enhanced connectivity by linking remote areas and cities, facilitating economic integration and regional development. They enable access to markets, resources, and employment opportunities, boosting trade, tourism, and economic activities across tropical Africa.

(v) Increased Accessibility: Rail systems provide reliable and accessible transportation for both passengers and goods. They offer a cost-effective means of travel, making it easier for people to commute between cities and towns, visit tourist destinations, and access essential services such as healthcare and education. This accessibility helps bridge the gap between rural and urban areas.

(vi) Job Creation: Developing rail infrastructure in tropical Africa generates employment opportunities in various sectors. From construction and maintenance to operation and management, rail projects create jobs for engineers, technicians, drivers, station staff, and support personnel. This job creation contributes to economic development and poverty reduction.

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(vii) Long-term Cost Savings: While initial investments in rail infrastructure may be significant, in the long run, rail transport can be cost-effective. Railways have lower operating costs compared to road transport due to lower fuel consumption, reduced vehicle maintenance, and decreased road damage. These cost savings can be beneficial for both businesses and governments.

(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Many countries in tropical Africa have outdated and inadequate rail infrastructure. The existing rail networks often suffer from poor maintenance, outdated technology, and insufficient capacity. This results in slower speeds, frequent breakdowns, and limited connectivity, hindering the smooth movement of goods and passengers.

(ii) Funding Constraints: Lack of adequate funding is a major challenge for rail projects in tropical Africa. Limited financial resources lead to delays in infrastructure upgrades, repairs, and expansion, hampering the overall efficiency of rail transportation.

(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Due to financial constraints and lack of technical expertise, rail infrastructure in tropical Africa often suffers from inadequate maintenance. This results in deteriorating tracks, bridges, and signaling systems, leading to frequent disruptions, delays, and safety concerns.

(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Many rail networks in tropical Africa suffer from a lack of interconnectivity, limiting their reach and effectiveness. Incomplete or fragmented rail systems make it challenging to transport goods seamlessly across different regions, hindering economic integration and trade.

(v) Inefficient Operations: Inefficient operations and management practices contribute to the problems facing rail transportation in tropical Africa. Factors such as outdated technology, inadequate training of staff, and suboptimal scheduling and coordination lead to delays, inefficiencies, and reduced service quality.

(vi) Insecurity: Rail transportation in tropical Africa often faces security challenges such as vandalism, theft, and sabotage. These incidents not only disrupt operations but also pose risks to the safety of passengers and cargo.

(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Increased investment in rail infrastructure by seeking partnerships with international organizations, private sector entities, and foreign investors can provide the necessary funding for infrastructure upgrades, expansion, and modernization, thereby improving the capacity and quality of rail networks.
(ii) Funding Constraints: Governments can offer incentives and create a conducive business environment to encourage private sector participation.
(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Government should establish a dedicated maintenance fund for rail infrastructure, ensuring a regular and sufficient budget allocation for maintenance activities and also train and employ skilled maintenance personnel.
(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Improved coordination and planning are required to enhance interconnectivity between different rail lines and modes of transport.
(v) Inefficient Operations: Implementing modern management practices, training programs, and technological upgrades can address these issues.
(vi) Insecurity: Strengthening security measures, implementing surveillance systems, and increasing law enforcement presence can help mitigate these risks.

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(4a) Internal Trade also know as Domestic trade is the type of trade which involves the buying and selling or exchange of goods and services within the country.

(i) Low technology generally does not improve internal trade.
(ii) Inter communal strife or political instability do slow down internal trade.
(iii) Similarity of products for limit internal trade in nigeria.
(iv) Smuggling of products to neighboring countries thereby, causing artificial scarcity limit internal trade.
(v) High Rate of rural-urban migrations.
(vi) High level of pests and diseases attack on crops, leading to low harvest.
(vii) Unfavorable climate which can lead to low yield and harvest.

(i) Fosters regional Cooperation: Internal trade fosters regional cooperation.
(ii) Provision of Job Opportunity: It also provides employment to many people involved in trade.
(iii) Growth of Ancillary Services: Internal trade emails the growth of ancillary services like agro-allied industry and banking.
(iv) Provision of raw materials: Internal trade provides raw materials for industries e.g. tomato juice/paste.
(v) Source of Income: Internal trade provides income to individuals and the nation.
(vi) Diffusion of Ideas: Internal trade also promotes the diffusion of ideas when people from different regions come together.


1. High annual rainfall: Rainfall in tropical rainforests can exceed 250cm annually.
2. Dense vegetation: The forest floor in a tropical rainforest is usually covered with a thick layer of vegetation, which makes movement difficult.
3. High biodiversity: Tropical rainforests are home to a wide range of plant and animal species.
4. Warm and humid climate: Temperature and humidity levels are relatively high in tropical rainforests, with average temperatures of 25°C.

(5c) :

1. Timber production: Rainforests are valuable sources of hardwood timber, which is used for construction, furniture making, and other purposes.
2. Medicinal plants: Many plants in tropical rainforests have medicinal properties and are used to treat various ailments.
3. Ecotourism: Rainforests attract tourists from all over the world, who come to see the unique plants and animals found in this habitat.
4. Petroleum: Many of Nigeria’s oil reserves are found in rainforest areas.
5. Carbon sequestration: The trees in rainforests absorb

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