2023 NABTEB GCE Computer Craft Studies Obj & Essay

2024 Free NABTEB Expo Questions And Answers




(i) Data Security:
Data security refers to the protection of digital data, such as databases, from unauthorized access, corruption, or theft. It involves implementing measures and controls to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data.

(ii) Data Control:
Data control involves managing and regulating access to data to ensure that it is used appropriately and in accordance with policies and regulations. This includes defining and enforcing user roles and permissions, auditing data access, and implementing other mechanisms to control how data is manipulated and shared.

(iii) Data Validation:
Data validation is the process of ensuring that data is accurate, consistent, and meaningful. It involves checking data for errors, completeness, and conformity to predefined standards or rules. Validation helps maintain data quality and reliability.

Batch processing is a method where data is collected, processed, and then entered into a system as a group or batch of transactions. In this approach, data is accumulated over a period, and processing occurs at a later time, often during non-peak hours. It contrasts with real-time processing where transactions are processed immediately as they occur.

In a centralized system, all data processing tasks are performed on a single central computer. Data and control are concentrated in one location WHILE In a distributed system, processing tasks are distributed across multiple computers or nodes. Each node may have its own processing capabilities, and they work together to achieve a common goal.

(ii) On-line Processing involves processing data immediately after it is entered or requested. Users interact with the system in real-time, but the processing might not be instantaneous.
On the other hand, In real-time processing, data is processed immediately as it is generated or received. There is little to no delay between the occurrence of an event and the processing of that event

Data transmission refers to the process of sending or transmitting data from one location to another. It involves the movement of digital or analog signals carrying the data over a communication channel, such as cables or wireless networks.

(i) Attenuation: Attenuation refers to the loss of signal strength or reduction in the amplitude of a signal as it travels through a medium or a transmission path. It can be caused by factors like distance, interference, or the characteristics of the transmission medium.

(ii) Delay distortion: Delay distortion occurs when different components of a signal experience different delays during transmission. This can lead to a misalignment of the signal’s components, resulting in distortion or degradation of the signal quality.

(iii) Noise: Noise refers to any unwanted or random interference that disrupts the original signal during transmission. It can be caused by various factors, such as electromagnetic interference, signal reflections, or external disturbances. Noise can affect the accuracy and reliability of the transmitted data.

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Transmission can be defined as the process of sending or conveying data from one point to another. There are two main types of transmission:

– Wired Transmission: This type of transmission involves the use of physical cables or wires to transmit data signals. Examples include Ethernet cables, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables.

– Wireless Transmission: Wireless transmission involves the use of electromagnetic waves to transmit data without the need for physical cables. It utilizes technologies like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or cellular networks to transmit data wirelessly.


A computer network is a set of interconnected computers that communicate with each other and share resources. These interconnected computers can be linked locally or globally, enabling them to share information, applications, and services.


(i) Resource Sharing: Computer networks allow for the sharing of resources such as printers, files, and applications, reducing the overall cost of hardware and software.

(ii) Reliability: Networks provide redundancy and backup options, ensuring that if one part of the network fails, others can still function. This enhances reliability and minimizes the risk of data loss.

(iii) Communication: Networks facilitate efficient communication through email, messaging, video conferencing, and other collaborative tools, improving overall productivity and collaboration among users.

(iv) Cost Efficiency: Sharing resources and centralizing management can lead to cost savings. Instead of purchasing individual resources for each computer, they can be shared among multiple users.

(v) Centralized Data Management: Centralized data storage on servers allows for better control, management, and security of data. It also facilitates data backup and recovery processes.

(vi) Scalability: Computer networks can be easily scaled to accommodate a growing number of users or devices. This scalability ensures that the network infrastructure can adapt to changing business needs.

(i) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): A MAN is a network that spans a larger geographic area, such as a city or a metropolitan area. It connects multiple LANs together and typically uses high-speed connections like fiber optics.

(ii) WAN (Wide Area Network): A WAN covers a much larger geographic area, such as a country or even multiple countries. It connects multiple LANs and MANs together using various communication technologies, such as leased lines, satellites, or the internet.

(iii) LAN (Local Area Network): A LAN is a network that is confined to a small area, such as a home, office, or building. It allows devices in close proximity to share resources, such as files, printers, or an internet connection.

(i) Purpose: Input devices are used to provide data or instructions to a computer, while output devices display or present the processed information to the user.

(ii) Direction: Input devices send data or commands from the user to the computer, whereas output devices receive data from the computer and present it to the user.

(iii) Examples: Common input devices include keyboards, mice, scanners, and microphones, while output devices include monitors, printers, speakers, and projectors.

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(iv) Interaction: Input devices allow users to interact with the computer by providing input, while output devices provide feedback or display the results of the user’s input.

(v) Data flow: Input devices convert physical actions or data into digital signals that the computer can understand, while output devices convert digital signals into a form that humans can perceive, such as text, images, or sound.

(i) Function keys: Function keys are a set of keys on a keyboard that are designated for specific functions or commands. They are typically labelled as F1, F2, F3 and so on. Examples: F5 key, F12 key

(ii) Alphabetic keys: Alphabetic keys are the main keys on a keyboard that represent letters of the alphabet. They allow users to input text and are used in various applications, such as word processors, text editors, and web browsers. Examples: A-Z key, Shift + A-Z key

(iii) Special keys: Special keys on a keyboard have specific functions beyond inputting letters or numbers. They serve various purposes depending on the context or application being used. Examples; Enter/Return key, Shift key

Word processing refers to the creation, editing, formatting, and printing of documents using a computer. It involves the manipulation of text to produce high-quality documents.

=Two Word Processing Packages=
(i) Microsoft Word
(ii) Google Docs


(i) Font Formatting
(ii) Paragraph Formatting
(iii) Page Formatting
(iv) Bullet and Numbering Formatting
(v) Style Formatting

(i) Merge cells:
– Open the spreadsheet or table where you want to merge cells.
– Select the cells that you want to merge.
– Right-click on the selected cells and choose the “Merge Cells” option from the context menu.
– The selected cells will be merged into a single cell, combining their contents.

(ii) Add a footnote to a document:
– Open the document where you want to add a footnote.
– Place your cursor at the point in the document where you want the footnote to appear.
– Go to the “References” or “Insert” tab in your word processing software.
– Look for the “Footnote” or “Insert Footnote” option and click on it.
– A footnote will be added at the bottom of the page, and you can start typing the footnote text.

(i) Data: Data refers to raw facts and figures that are unorganized and have little meaning. It can be in the form of numbers, text, images, or any other format.

(ii) Information: Information is processed and organized data that has context, relevance, and purpose. It is the result of interpreting and analyzing data, providing meaning and value to it.


(i) Supercomputers: Supercomputers are the largest and most powerful computers. They are used for complex scientific calculations, weather forecasting, and simulations that require massive processing power.

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(ii) Mainframe Computers: Mainframe computers are large, powerful computers that can handle a vast amount of data and support multiple users simultaneously. They are commonly used in large organizations for tasks such as data processing, transaction processing, and database management.

(iii) Minicomputers: Minicomputers are smaller than mainframes but larger than microcomputers. They were popular in the 1960s and 1970s and were used in businesses and research institutions for tasks such as scientific calculations and data processing.

(iv) Microcomputers: Microcomputers, also known as personal computers, are small, affordable, and widely used computers. They are designed for individual use and can perform a variety of tasks such as word processing, web browsing, and gaming.

(v) Embedded Computers: Embedded computers are small computers embedded within other devices or systems. They are designed for specific functions and can be found in everyday objects like smartphones, cars, appliances, and medical devices.


(i) Business and Finance
(ii) Scientific Research
(iii) Data Processing and Analysis
(iv) Communication
(v) Education and Training
(vi) Entertainment

(i) Source code: Source code refers to the human-readable instructions or statements written in a programming language. It is the code that programmers write to create software applications.

(ii) Object code: Object code is the machine-readable version of the source code. It is generated by a compiler or an assembler and consists of binary code that can be executed directly by a computer.

(i) An operating system is a software that manages computer hardware and software resources, provides a user interface, and allows other software applications to run WHILE MS Word is a word processing software application used for creating, editing, and formatting text documents. It is an application that runs on top of an operating system.

(ii) Assembly language is a low-level programming language that uses mnemonic codes and symbols to represent machine instructions. It is specific to the computer architecture and requires translation into machine code WHILE BASIC (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a high-level programming language designed for beginners. It uses English-like statements and is easier to read and write compared to assembly language.

(iii) Low-level language refers to programming languages that are closer to machine code and hardware. They provide little or no abstraction from the computer’s architecture and are more difficult to read and write WHILE High-level language refers to programming languages that are closer to human language and provide more abstraction from the computer’s architecture. They are easier to read and write, making programming more accessible to a wider range of people.


(i) Machine language
(ii) Assembly language
(iii) Microprogramming language
(iv) Binary code


(i) Python
(ii) Java
(iii) C++
(iv) Ruby


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