2023 Ondo State Joint Geography Question & Answers

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*ONDO STATE JOINT GEOGRAPHY*

*NUMBER* 1a

The solar system is the collection of planets, moons, asteroids, and other celestial bodies that orbit the sun. The sun is the center of the solar system, and all the planets and other objects in the solar system revolve around it. The eight planets in the solar system, in order from closest to farthest from the sun, are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. There are also dwarf planets like Pluto, comets, asteroids, and more!

*1b* .

Starting with Uranus:
1. Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun, and it’s known for its unique sideways tilt.
2. Uranus has 27 moons, the largest of which is Titania.
3. Uranus is made mostly of hydrogen and helium, like Jupiter and Saturn.
4. Uranus has a blue-green color, which is caused by methane in its atmosphere.
5. Uranus takes 84 Earth years to orbit the sun.
So, that’s a quick overview of Uranus. Now, let’s talk about Mercury:

For Mercury:
1. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, and it takes 88 days to orbit the sun.
2. Mercury is a small planet, about 3,032 miles in diameter.
3. Mercury has no moons, and it’s the smallest planet in the solar system.
4. Mercury has extreme temperature differences, from over 800 degrees Fahrenheit during the day to -290 degrees Fahrenheit at night.
5. Mercury has a rocky surface, similar to Earth’s moon.
There you go! Now you know a bit about both Uranus and Mercury.
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*Number 4*
4a)
Population refers to a group of individuals of the same species living in a specific geographical area at a specific time. For humans, population refers to the total number of individuals living within a country, city, or any designated area.

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(4b)

(i) Optimum Population: This is the size of a population that, when combined with the available resources and current technology, produces the highest per-capita economic output. It’s the ideal population size that leads to maximum economic efficiency, resulting in the highest standard of living for the people.

(ii) Overpopulation: Overpopulation occurs when the number of people living in a specific geographical area exceeds the capacity of that area to support them in a sustainable manner. It’s generally characterized by the shortage of resources like food, water, housing, and healthcare, leading to a decline in living conditions and potential environmental degradation.

(4c)

(I) Resource Depletion: Overpopulation often results in the overexploitation of natural resources. As the demand for resources like water, food, and energy increases, they can become depleted, leading to potential scarcity or environmental damage.

(ii) Higher Unemployment Rate: As the population increases beyond the capacity of an economy to provide jobs, unemployment rates can rise. This can lead to increased poverty and social unrest.

(iii) Poor Living Conditions: Overpopulation can result in inadequate access to essential services like education, healthcare, and housing, leading to a decline in living standards.

(iv) Environmental Degradation: Overpopulation can result in increased pollution, waste production, and pressure on natural habitats. This environmental degradation can harm biodiversity and contribute to issues like climate change.

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*Number 5*

(5a)
Migration refers to the movement of people from one geographical area to another with the intent to settle in the new location for a significant period of time, or permanently. This movement can be within a country (internal migration) or between different countries (international migration).

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(5b) Causes of Migration

(I) Economic Factors: The search for better job opportunities and improved living standards often compels people to migrate from regions with fewer resources to those with more. This is a common cause for both rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

(ii) Political Instability and Conflict: War, political unrest, and persecution can force people to flee their homes, resulting in forced migration or refugee movements.

(iii) Environmental Factors: Natural disasters, prolonged drought, or other severe environmental conditions can make an area unlivable, prompting migration. This is becoming increasingly prevalent with climate change.

(iv) Education and Family Reunion: People often migrate to pursue higher education or to join family members who have previously migrated.

5c)
CHOOSE ANY FIVE (5)
(i) Rural Development: Investing in rural development can make rural life more attractive and economically viable. This includes improving infrastructure, providing better healthcare and education facilities, and creating local job opportunities.

(ii) Agricultural Support: Many rural residents rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. Providing modern farming tools, high-quality seeds, training in modern farming techniques, and fair agricultural policies can make farming more profitable, reducing the need for rural inhabitants to migrate in search of better economic opportunities.

(iii) Decentralization of Industries: By promoting industrial development in rural and semi-urban areas, job opportunities can be created closer to home for rural populations. This can help check the flow of migrants to big cities.

(iv) Enhanced Social Services: By improving access to quality education, healthcare, and other social services in rural areas, people may feel less compelled to move to urban areas for these services.

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(v) Balanced Regional Development: A balanced development approach that avoids the concentration of resources and services in a few urban areas can help reduce the urban-rural disparity and slow migration from rural areas to cities.

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