2023 WAEC GCE Literature In English (Drama & Poetry) Answers

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*WAEC GCE LITERATURE III*

(2)
Jilo, she is Ndapi’s adulterous wife. She thrives hard to become a good wife to Ndapi, but Jilo wouldn’t reciprocate such affectionate love gesture. This drives her into the hands of Lansana who has a sugar-coated tongue and they become lovers until they are caught in the bush embracing each other. Meanwhile, they have been meeting secretly in Ndapi’s house whenever he’s not around.

When brought to Yoko, she orders her to be put in stocks pending when Lansana who had gone to Taiama and be back in three days’ time is found. She attempts to defend the act, but unfortunately, there is no reason why she should cheat on her husband.
Jilo also confesses to Fanneh that she is a woman who is constantly abused by a man whom she gives her body.
she admits that it is frustration from her marital home that compelled her to flirt and have an affair with Lansana.

SECTION A

(4)
In Wole Soyinka’s play “The Lion and the Jewel,” Sidi’s beauty and pride are essential aspects of her character, and they play a significant role in shaping the narrative. Her beauty becomes a symbol of her desirability and allure, captivating the attention of both Lakunle, a schoolteacher who represents modernity and progress, and Baroka, the village chief who embodies traditional values.

Sidi’s pride in her beauty leads her to believe that she holds power over men, especially in her interactions with Lakunle and Baroka. However, her overestimation of this power becomes her undoing to some extent. Her vanity and pride blind her to the complexities of relationships and the nuances of power dynamics, particularly within a patriarchal society like the village depicted in the play.

Baroka, the cunning and experienced village chief, uses his wisdom and understanding of traditional culture to undermine Sidi’s pride. He manipulates her vanity by pretending impotence to win her trust and ultimately asserts his dominance by “defeating” her in their symbolic encounter, leading to Sidi’s humiliation.

Therefore, while Sidi’s beauty and pride initially empower her and elevate her status in the village, they also contribute to her vulnerability and eventual humiliation at the hands of Baroka. This aspect of her character highlights the clash between tradition and modernity and underscores the complexities of power and perception within the societal context of the play.

(5)
COLONEL REDFERN is Alison’s father who is also a former colonel in the British army stationed in the English colony of India (back before 1947 that is, when India was still a colony of England. He represents Britain’s great Edwardian past. He was a military leader in India for many years before returning with his family to England. He is quite particular and critical of Jimmy and Alison and Alison’s marriage, but admits that he is to blame for many of their problems because of his undue meddling in their affairs. He is gentle and kind in his approach to issues and this makes him command respect.

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He is very incisive and he believes every standard should be maintained. He feels discouraged about Jimmy resorting to below-standard Jobs such as sweet-stall. It does not seem an extraordinary thing for an educated young man to be occupying himself with. Why should he want to do that, of all things”. The Colonel admits that both he and Alison’s mother are to blame for everything; he also becomes mystified when Alison reveals that her marriage to Jimmy is built on revenge mission. As a believer of true love, Colonel wonders why youths of nowadays don’t marry for love. “They have to talk about challenges and revenge. I just can’t believe that love between men and moment is really like that.

Colonel Redfern is a calm and easy-going soldier who does not use his Juicy office to maltreat others. He refuses to approach Alison’s maltreatment with military fashion, but waits patiently to listen to both parties involved.

Mrs. Redfern represents the older, traditional generation, embodying the societal norms and expectations of her time. Her influence is felt through Alison, who is married to the play’s protagonist, Jimmy Porter. Alison’s background and upbringing with a more conservative mother contribute to the tension and conflict in her marriage with Jimmy, who rebels against societal conventions and expresses his discontent through anger and frustration.

Alison’s ties to her mother become a source of conflict, highlighting the generation gap and the clash between the traditional values represented by Mrs. Redfern and the rebellious, iconoclastic attitude of Jimmy. The unseen but ever-present influence of Mrs. Redfern contributes to the theme of societal expectations and the struggle to break free from them.

Alison’s internal conflict, torn between her loyalty to her mother’s values and her desire for independence with Jimmy, reflects the broader social changes occurring in post-war Britain. Mrs. Redfern’s role, therefore, is not just that of a distant figure but a symbol of the societal expectations that the characters grapple with, adding depth and context to the play’s exploration of class, relationships, and cultural shifts.

(6)

The nature of Jimmy’s talk to Alison is quite controversial; as it’s effect in Jimmy and Alison’s marriage is consummated in the ground of revenge. Their relationship is seen as master and servant relationship and they barely enjoy peace and harmony at home as Jimmy is always at the control of everything, while Alison’s business is to remain silent. Jimmy believes that love is pain and suffering. He therefore scorns Cliff and Alison’s love for each other, which is gentle fondness that does not correspond to his own brand of passionate, angry feeling. Jimmy’s definition of love has to do with the class tensions between Jimmy and Alison, and she tells her father, colonel Redfern that Jimmy married her out of sense of revenge against the upper classes. It was born out of sense of competition between classes.

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It is clear that Jimmy and Alison’s love for each other is not characterized by much tenderness though they do manage to exhibit one when they play their animal game. Jimmy and Alison as the beer and squirrel are able to express more simple affection for each other, but only in a dehumanized manner. In the first scene, Jimmy describes the game as a retreat from organized society. Their relationship is marred by class struggle anger and suffering.

Jimmy and Alison’s relationship lack feeling and stability, because Jimmy especially, does not nurse any aorta of feeling for Alison, as he feels undaunted or not worry at all when she lost her first baby, Alison who is ever ready to be with Jimmy walks away and returns quickly to him and they both renew their vows and opts for peace.

SECTION B

(7)
In August Wilson’s play “Fences,” Rose’s acceptance of Raynell, the child born out of Troy’s affair, is a complex and multi-layered aspect of the story. Initially, Rose struggles with the revelation of Troy’s infidelity and the subsequent arrival of Raynell. However, over time, Rose embodies a remarkable sense of compassion and acceptance towards the child.

Despite the pain caused by Troy’s betrayal, Rose’s acceptance of Raynell symbolizes her capacity for forgiveness and her unwavering love for children, regardless of their origins. She chooses to raise Raynell as her own, offering unconditional love and support. This act showcases Rose’s strength and resilience in the face of adversity, embodying her commitment to family and her willingness to embrace Raynell as a part of it.

Rose’s acceptance of Raynell also reflects her ability to move beyond the hurt and anger caused by Troy’s actions. It signifies her willingness to nurture and care for a child who is innocent and deserving of love, despite the circumstances of her birth. Ultimately, Rose’s acceptance of Raynell underscores her generosity of spirit and her ability to find grace and healing amidst pain and betrayal.

SECTION C

(9)
“The Song of the Women of my Land” by Mahmud Darwish employs similes and metaphors to evoke powerful imagery and convey deeper meanings throughout the poem.

(i) Simile:
Darwish uses similes to create vivid comparisons, such as “like the shadow of a cloud on fields of basil” to describe the fleeting nature of time and memory. This comparison emphasizes the transient and delicate nature of memories, which can vanish as swiftly as a passing cloud’s shadow.

(ii)Metaphor:
(i) Metaphors are pervasive in the poem, like “My land is a woman,” personifying the land and endowing it with human characteristics. This metaphorical representation intensifies the emotional attachment and connection of the people to their homeland, portraying it as something cherished and deeply valued.

(ii) The line “Her forehead is of stars” is another metaphor, symbolizing the land’s beauty and vastness by likening it to the celestial expanse. This metaphorical imagery elevates the land’s significance and splendor in the eyes of the women singing the song.

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Darwish’s use of similes and metaphors enriches the poem, allowing readers to visualize and emotionally connect with the sentiments expressed about the land, memory, and the profound ties between people and their homeland. These literary devices create a tapestry of evocative images that resonate with the readers’ emotions and understanding.

(10)
In the poem, the poet attributes rage or uncontrolled anger to be the chief destroyer of human virtue and a thief that steals away our good morals such as happiness, joy and good life. Anger does not yield any good fruit, but rather it will “breach your sails with arrows unseen” – meaning, it exposes you to danger, “Which would blot out that brief”: reduces your lifespan. “No! Rob you of your life, rage is chief”. Here the persona sees anger as the most important vice that can ruin your life totally. “Rage drags rags after you” – anger breeds shame and spoils all other good virtues such as kindness, laughter, sweetness and light.

The poet therefore calls rage thief because it spoils so many good things in you. It is the enemy of equanimity, because it steals away your gentleness, kindness, calmness and loveliness. Anger also makes one unstable in character and does not allow one compose oneself especially under stress. “Rage spells calamity” – meaning, it engineers other evils like hard luck, violence, murder, insecurity and regret.

The poet persona therefore sees anger as the raider of treasure trove.

SECTION D

(11)
In “The Good-Morrow,” a poem by John Donne, the poet views his new-found love as transformative and all-encompassing. The speaker expresses the idea that his life truly began, and he awakened to a new reality only when he discovered true love. The language used in the poem suggests a sense of completeness and fulfillment in the union with the beloved. The poem explores the notion that love is not just a physical or fleeting experience but a profound connection that gives meaning and purpose to life.
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(12)
In “Binsey Poplars,” a poem by Gerard Manley Hopkins, the mood undergoes a significant transformation. The poem begins with a serene and contemplative mood as the speaker reflects on the beauty of nature and the poplar trees in Binsey. However, the mood shifts dramatically in the latter part of the poem when the speaker discovers that the trees have been felled. The tone becomes sorrowful and indignant as the speaker mourns the loss of the natural landscape and criticizes the human impact on the environment. The juxtaposition of the initial peaceful mood with the later grief and anger creates a poignant contrast, highlighting the ecological theme of the poem.
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