NABTEB Government Answers For Essay & Obj 2024


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Public opinion refers to the views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a significant portion of the public regarding a particular issue, topic, or leader. It represents the collective sentiment of a population, shaping the social, political, and cultural landscape.

(i) Influencing Policy: Public opinion shapes policy decisions, as politicians and governments often consider public views when making decisions.

(ii) Holding Leaders Accountable: Public opinion serves as a check on leaders, holding them accountable for their actions and policies.

(iii) Shaping Culture: Public opinion influences cultural norms, values, and beliefs, reflecting and shaping societal attitudes.

(iv) Impacting Elections: Public opinion plays a crucial role in elections, as voters’ views and attitudes towards candidates and parties determine election outcomes.

(v) Informing Decision-Making: Public opinion provides valuable feedback to businesses, organizations, and individuals, informing their decisions and strategies.

Government as an instrument of the state refers to the formal institutions, structures, and processes that exercise authority and power to govern a society, implement policies, and provide public goods and services.

(i) Understanding Political Power: Studying government helps students comprehend how power is distributed, exercised, and maintained, enabling them to analyze political dynamics.

(ii) Civic Engagement: Learning about government empowers students to participate actively in civic life, vote informedly, and engage in public debates.

(iii) Policy Analysis: Students study government to understand policy-making processes, evaluate policy impacts, and develop skills to analyze and develop effective policies.

(iv) Career Opportunities: Knowledge of government is essential for careers in public service, law, international relations, and political analysis.

(v) Informed Citizenship: Studying government fosters informed citizenship, enabling students to understand their rights, responsibilities, and roles in shaping the future of their country.

Legitimacy refers to the acceptance and recognition of a government’s authority, power, and decisions by its citizens, based on the belief that the government has the right to rule and make decisions on their behalf.

(i) Democratic Elections: Free, fair, and regular elections confer legitimacy on a government, as they reflect the will of the people.

(ii) Rule of Law: A government that upholds the rule of law, protects individual rights, and ensures justice and equality, is considered legitimate.

(iii) Performance and Effectiveness: A government that delivers public goods and services, promotes economic growth, and maintains order and stability, is seen as legitimate.

(iv) Popular Support: A government that enjoys widespread popular support, trust, and approval, is considered legitimate.

(v) International Recognition: Recognition by the international community, including other governments and international organizations, can enhance a government’s legitimacy.

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(vi) Constitutionalism: A government that operates within a constitutional framework, respecting the limits and powers granted to it, is considered legitimate.

(vii) Accountability: A government that is transparent, accountable, and responsive to its citizens, is seen as legitimate.

(viii) Tradition and History: A government that has a long history of legitimacy, stability, and effectiveness, may enjoy legitimacy based on tradition and precedent.

(i) Discrimination: Denying rights based on race, gender, religion, or other characteristics.

(ii) Oppression: Using power or force to suppress rights, freedoms, and dissent.

(iii) Repression: Limiting rights through laws, regulations, or policies that restrict freedoms.

(iv) Coercion: Forcing citizens to act against their will, compromising their autonomy and rights.

(v) Neglect: Failing to protect citizens’ rights, ignoring their needs, and neglecting their well-being.

(i) Constitutional Protections: Enshrining rights in a constitution or bill of rights, providing legal safeguards.
(ii) Independent Judiciary: Ensuring an impartial judiciary to uphold rights, interpret laws, and check abuses.

(iii) Democratic Governance: Promoting participatory democracy, transparency, and accountability to protect rights.

(iv) Human Rights Institutions: Establishing institutions dedicated to promoting and protecting human rights.

(v) Education and Awareness: Educating citizens about their rights, empowering them to exercise and defend their rights effectively.

Public cooperation refers to the collective effort and collaboration of citizens, organizations, and government agencies to achieve common goals and objectives that benefit the community as a whole.

(i) Problem-Solving: Public cooperation helps address social, economic, and environmental issues that require collective action, such as poverty reduction, public health initiatives, and disaster response.

(ii) Resource Sharing: Public cooperation enables the sharing of resources, expertise, and knowledge among stakeholders, leading to more efficient use of resources and better outcomes.

(iii) Community Building: Public cooperation fosters a sense of community and social cohesion, promoting trust, understanding, and mutual support among citizens.

(iv) Advocacy and Lobbying: Public cooperation provides a platform for citizens to advocate for their rights, interests, and policy changes, influencing decision-making processes.

(v) Capacity Building: Public cooperation enhances the capacity of individuals, organizations, and government agencies to respond to challenges, innovate, and adapt to changing circumstances.


The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria originated from the need to establish a new political order after years of military rule. In 1998, General Abdulsalami Abubakar’s military government established a Constitutional Assembly to draft a new constitution. The Assembly comprised 308 members representing various interest groups, including politicians, traditional rulers, and civil society organizations. After deliberations and public consultations, the Assembly produced a draft constitution, which was later ratified by the military government and came into effect on May 29, 1999.

(i) Federalism: The constitution establishes a federal system of government, with a clear division of powers between the Federal Government and the 36 states.

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(ii) Separation of Powers: The constitution provides for the separation of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.

(iii) Fundamental Human Rights: The constitution enshrines fundamental human rights, including the right to life, liberty, freedom of speech, and freedom of association.

(iv) Rule of Law: The constitution emphasizes the rule of law, ensuring that all citizens are equal before the law and that the government and its agents are not above the law.

(v) Democratic Governance: The constitution provides for democratic governance, including the principles of representation, accountability, and participatory democracy.

(i) Age Grade: In Igbo pre-colonial government, the age grade referred to a system of social organization where individuals born within a certain period (usually 3-5 years) were grouped together and performed specific roles and responsibilities. Age grades played a crucial role in community development, conflict resolution, and social control.

(ii) Ozo Title Holders: Ozo title holders were respected individuals who had achieved a high level of prestige and recognition in Igbo society. They held important positions in governance, religion, and culture, and played a significant role in maintaining social order and balance.

The 1954 constitution established true federalism in Nigeria in the following ways:

(i) Regional Autonomy: It created three regions (Northern, Western, and Eastern) with significant autonomy, allowing them to manage their affairs and develop at their own pace.

(ii) Revenue Allocation: It introduced a revenue allocation formula that ensured each region received a significant share of national revenue, enabling them to fund their development projects.

(iii) Constitutional Powers: It clearly defined the powers of the federal government and the regions, avoiding confusion and overlap.

(iv) Representation: It provided for representation in the federal legislature based on population, ensuring that each region had a proportional number of representatives.

(v) Cultural Recognition: It recognized and respected the cultural diversity of the regions, allowing them to maintain their unique identities and institutions.

The Security Council is a powerful organ of the United Nations that maintains international peace and security. It investigates threats to peace, imposes sanctions or authorizes military action, and oversees peacekeeping operations. The Council has 15 members, including 5 permanent members (China, France, Russia, UK, and US) and 10 non-permanent members elected for 2-year terms. The Security Council plays a crucial role in preventing and resolving conflicts, promoting diplomacy and dialogue, and maintaining global peace and security. Its decisions are binding on all UN member states, making it a key player in shaping international relations and addressing global challenges.

(i) Maintaining International Peace and Security: The UN works to prevent and resolve conflicts, promoting diplomacy, dialogue, and cooperation among nations.

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(ii) Promoting Sustainable Development: The UN aims to eradicate poverty, reduce inequality, and promote economic growth, social development, and environmental sustainability.

(iii) Protecting Human Rights: The UN promotes and protects human rights, fundamental freedoms, and the dignity of all individuals, with a focus on vulnerable groups and populations.

Foreign policy refers to a country’s strategic approach to interacting with other nations, international organizations, and global issues. It encompasses a range of activities, including diplomacy, economic cooperation, security, and cultural exchange, aimed at promoting national interests, values, and goals.

(i) Historical and Cultural Ties:
Nigeria shares deep historical and cultural connections with other African countries. These ties are rooted in shared colonial histories, ethnic affiliations, and common experiences of struggle for independence. Nigeria’s commitment to African unity and solidarity is reflected in its active role in the formation and support of organizations like the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

(ii) Economic Interests:
Nigeria’s economic interests are closely linked with those of other African nations. As Africa’s most populous country and one of its largest economies, Nigeria benefits from regional trade, investment opportunities, and economic integration. By prioritizing Africa in its foreign policy, Nigeria seeks to enhance regional economic cooperation, boost intra-African trade, and support initiatives like the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), which aim to create a single continental market for goods and services.

(iii) Security Concerns:
Regional security is a significant aspect of Nigeria’s foreign policy focus on Africa. Nigeria faces various security challenges, including terrorism, insurgency, and cross-border crimes. Addressing these issues requires regional cooperation and collective security measures. Nigeria has been actively involved in peacekeeping missions and conflict resolution efforts within Africa, such as its leadership role in ECOWAS interventions in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

(iv) Political Influence and Leadership:
Nigeria aspires to be a leading voice and influential power in African affairs. By positioning Africa as the centerpiece of its foreign policy, Nigeria aims to assert its leadership role on the continent, promoting democracy, good governance, and human rights. Nigeria’s active participation in regional and continental organizations helps to shape the political landscape of Africa and project its influence in global forums.

(v) Pan-African Ideology:
The ideology of Pan-Africanism, which emphasizes the unity and collective progress of African nations, underpins Nigeria’s foreign policy orientation. Nigeria’s commitment to African solidarity is evident in its support for anti-colonial and liberation movements, efforts to combat apartheid in South Africa, and initiatives to address socio-economic challenges facing the continent. This ideological stance reinforces Nigeria’s dedication to promoting African development and integration.


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