WAEC Food & Nutrition Obj & Essay Questions & Answers For 2023 – May/June

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FOOD & NUTRITION
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*FOOD AND NUTRITION*

(1a)
(i) Grain legumes
(ii) Forage legumes

(1b)
Grain legume:
(PICK ANY ONE)
-Soybeans
-Peanut
-Lentils

Forage legume:
-Alfalfa
-Ball clover
-Red clover
-White clover

(1c)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Lentil soup
(ii) Chickenpie curry
(iii) Bean salad
(iv) Falafel
(v) Black bean burritos
(vi) Soybean stir-fry

(1d)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) They are excellent plant-based protein Source
(ii) They have high nutritional value
(iii) Legumes can be beneficial for weight management due to their high protein and fiber content, which promote satiety.
(iv) They are considered a sustainable food source due to their nitrogen-fixing properties
(v) They are heart-healthy due to their high fiber content, low saturated fat content, and presence of phytochemicals and antioxidants.
(vi) They help in blood sugar regulation

(2a)
(i) Aesthetic Appeal: Table appointments, such as elegant dinnerware, stylish flatware, and beautiful glassware, contribute to the visual appeal of the table. They create an inviting atmosphere and set the tone for the meal, making it more enjoyable and memorable.

(ii) Functionality: Table appointments are designed to serve practical purposes during a meal. Plates and bowls provide a designated space for each dish, ensuring efficient and organized dining. Cutlery allows for easy handling and consumption of food, while glasses are specifically designed to enhance the flavors and aromas of various beverages.

(iii) Comfort and Convenience: Well-chosen table appointments enhance the comfort and convenience of diners. Quality dinnerware with appropriate weight and size makes it easier to eat and prevents accidental spills. Ergonomically designed utensils and well-balanced glassware provide a comfortable grip and enhance the overall dining experience.

(iv) Table Etiquette: Proper table appointments help establish and maintain table etiquette. The arrangement of tableware provides guidance to diners on the order in which utensils should be used, such as the placement of forks, knives, and spoons. This ensures a seamless dining experience and promotes good manners and etiquette.

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(v) Presentation and Plating: Table appointments contribute to the presentation and plating of the food. Well-chosen plates, bowls, and serving dishes provide a canvas for chefs to display their culinary creations attractively. The use of appropriate tableware and garnishes can elevate the visual appeal of the dish, making it more appetizing.

(vi) Cultural Significance: Table appointments often reflect cultural traditions and customs. Different cultures have their unique styles of table settings, including specific types of dinnerware, cutlery, and glassware. Incorporating these cultural elements into the table appointments can add depth and authenticity to the dining experience, celebrating diversity and heritage.

(2b)
Dinnerware: This includes plates, bowls, and side dishes. Plates come in various sizes and shapes, such as dinner plates, salad plates, and dessert plates. Bowls are used for soups, salads, or individual servings of pasta or rice. Side dishes are smaller plates used for condiments, bread, or appetizers.

(ii) Flatware: Flatware refers to the utensils used for eating, including forks, knives, and spoons. There are different types of forks, such as dinner forks, salad forks, and dessert forks, each with its specific purpose. Knives are designed for cutting and spreading, while spoons are used for soups, desserts, and stirring.

(iii) Glassware: Glassware encompasses the various types of glasses used for beverages. This includes water glasses, wine glasses, champagne flutes, cocktail glasses, and highball glasses. Each glass is designed to enhance the drinking experience and bring out the flavors and aromas of specific beverages.

(iv) Napkins: Napkins are essential for dining etiquette and cleanliness. They can be made of fabric or disposable paper.

(v) Tablecloth/Table Runner: Tablecloths and table runners are used to cover and protect the dining table. They add a decorative touch and help create an elegant atmosphere.

(vi) Centerpieces: Centerpieces are decorative elements placed in the center of the table. They can include floral arrangements, candles, fruit bowls, or any other visually appealing objects.

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(3a)
Recipe is a set of instructions or guidelines that outline the steps and ingredients needed to prepare a specific dish or beverage.

OR

Recipe is a set of instructions detailing how to prepare a specific dish or beverage. Recipes are used in cooking and baking to ensure consistent and successful results.

(3b)
(Pick Any Two)
(i)Ingredients
(ii)Preparation Instructions
(iii)Cooking Methods
(iv)Serving Suggestions

(3c)
(Pick Any Two)

(i)Skill level: Assess your cooking skills and choose a recipe that matches your proficiency level. Beginners may want to start with simpler recipes, while experienced cooks can explore more complex ones.

(ii)Dietary restrictions or preferences: Take into account any dietary restrictions or preferences, such as vegetarian, vegan, gluten-free, or allergies. Ensure the recipe aligns with your specific needs.

(iii)Available ingredients: Check the recipe’s ingredient list and ensure you have access to all the required ingredients. Consider the availability, freshness, and cost of the ingredients in your area.

(iv)Time and effort: Evaluate the amount of time and effort required to prepare the recipe. Some recipes may be quick and easy, while others might involve longer preparation or cooking times.

(v)Equipment needed: Determine if you have the necessary kitchen tools and equipment for the recipe. Consider whether you need special appliances, such as a blender, food processor, or baking pans.

(3d)
(Pick Any Two)

(i)Black-eyed peas
(ii)Onion
(iii)Scotch bonnet pepper
(iv)Salt
(v)oil

*FOOD AND NUTRITION*

(4a)

(i)Steaming
(ii)Stir-frying

(4b)
(Pick Any Three)

(i)Cooking process can cause some changes in the nutrient content of vegetables.
(ii)Cooking can improve the digestibility of vegetables by breaking down complex carbohydrates and proteins
(iii)Cooking can cause changes in the color of vegetables.
(iv)Cooking can enhance the flavors of vegetables.
(v)Cooking can soften the texture of vegetables, making them more tender and easier to chew and digest.

(4c)
(Pick Any Two)

(i)Enhancing flavor
(ii)Improving texture and tenderness
(iii)Increasing digestibility
(iv)Nutrient availability
(v)Culinary versatility and food safety

(4d)
(Pick Any Three)

(i)Vegetables are a great source of dietary fiber, which plays a crucial role in digestive health.

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(ii)Fiber content in vegetables promotes a healthy digestive system

(iii)Diets rich in vegetables have been associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases, including heart disease, certain cancers, and obesity

(iv) vegetables contain essential nutrients and minerals that are vital for maintaining overall health

(v)Certain vegetables, such as cucumbers and lettuce, have high water content, contributing to overall hydration.

(5a)
(i) Temperature control: One of the primary principles of food preservation is controlling the temperature to prevent the growth of microorganisms.

(ii) Moisture control: Moisture content plays a crucial role in food preservation. Reducing the moisture level in food inhibits microbial growth, as microorganisms require water to survive and multiply.

(iii) pH control: The acidity or alkalinity of food, as measured on the pH scale, can significantly impact the growth of microorganisms. Most bacteria thrive in a neutral or slightly acidic environment (pH 4.6-7.5), while yeasts and molds can tolerate a broader pH range.

(5b) Extended Shelf Life: Preserving food helps to extend its shelf life, allowing it to be stored and consumed over a more extended period.

(ii) Food Safety: Proper food preservation techniques play a crucial role in ensuring food safety. By controlling factors such as temperature, moisture, and pH, food preservation methods inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria, viruses, and molds that can cause foodborne illnesses. Properly preserved food reduces the risk of contamination and helps to maintain its quality and integrity.

(iii) Seasonal Availability: Food preservation allows us to enjoy the flavors and nutritional benefits of certain foods throughout the year, even when they are not in season.

(iv) Convenience and Accessibility: Preserving food makes it more convenient and accessible. By preserving food in a ready-to-eat or easy-to-prepare form, such as canned soups, frozen meals, or dried fruits, it becomes more convenient for individuals with busy lifestyles or limited cooking facilities.

(v) Cultural and Culinary Preservation: Food preservation is closely tied to cultural traditions, allowing communities to preserve their culinary heritage.

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