2023 NABTEB GCE Geography Physical & Practical – Nov/Dec

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Topographic map

Scale of the map = 1:50,000
Length in cm= 34.5cm
1cm = 50,000cm
.:. 34.5cm = x
x = 34.5 x 50,000
x = 1725,000 cm
x= 1.725km
Length = 1.725km

The distance as the crow flies between JUegang Dombi and Kwojji = 14cm
But the scale of the map = 1:50,000
Hence, the distance = 14 x 50,000
= 700,000 cm
= 7km



(i) Land
(ii) Water
(iii) Air

The direction of Apowa Manga settlement from Wuro-Manu is North while the direction of Apowa-Shangel hill from Wuro-Manu is North East


(i) Vegetation
(ii) Bridge
(iii) Settlements



Sedimentary rocks are types of rock formations that are formed from the accumulation and consolidation of sediments or particles of various origins.

(i) Sandstone
(ii) Limestone
(iii) Shale

(i) Energy Resources: Sedimentary rocks are the main source of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. These fuels play a crucial role in meeting global energy demands.
(ii) Building Materials: Sedimentary rocks like sandstone, limestone, and shale are commonly used as construction materials for buildings, roads, and monuments due to their durability and aesthetic appeal.
(iii) Industrial Minerals: Sedimentary rocks contain valuable minerals like gypsum, limestone, and halite, which are used in various industries such as construction, agriculture, and chemical manufacturing.


– Melting: Igneous rocks start forming when solid rock deep within the Earth’s crust or mantle melts due to high temperatures and/or pressure. This can occur in response to heat from nearby molten material, geological activity, or mantle convection.

– Magma Formation: When rocks melt, they transform into a molten substance known as magma. Magma can be either basaltic (rich in iron and magnesium) or granitic (rich in silica) depending on the composition of the original rock and the geological conditions.

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– Ascent: Magma is less dense than the surrounding rock, so it tends to rise towards the Earth’s surface through fissures, fractures, or volcanic vents. As it ascends, it may interact with other rocks, assimilating their material and altering its composition.

– Cooling and Solidification: As magma reaches the Earth’s surface, it’s called lava. When magma or lava cools and solidifies, it forms igneous rocks. The rate of cooling influences the size of mineral crystals within the rock. Rapid cooling, as in volcanic eruptions, typically results in smaller crystals, while slow cooling, as in underground intrusions, leads to larger crystals.

– Crystallization: During the cooling and solidification process, minerals within the magma begin to crystallize and form a solid rock structure. The specific minerals present and their arrangement depend on factors like the magma’s composition and cooling rate.

(i) Tropical Climate Group (A)
(ii) Arid and Semi-Arid Climate Group (B)
(iii) Temperate Climate Group (C)

Köppen’s climate classification is based on temperature, precipitation, and vegetation patterns.

(i) Tropical Rainforest (Af) within the Tropical Climate Group (A).
(ii) Desert (BWh, BSh) within the Arid and Semi-Arid Climate Group (B).

(i) Tropical Rainforest (Af): This sub-climate is characterized by high and relatively constant temperatures throughout the year, with abundant rainfall, often exceeding 60 inches (1500 mm) annually. It is typically associated with lush, evergreen forests and high biodiversity.

(ii) Desert (BWh, BSh): Deserts have extremely low annual precipitation, often less than 10 inches (250 mm), and are known for their arid conditions, with high temperatures during the day and cooler temperatures at night. Vegetation in deserts is typically adapted to arid conditions, with xerophytic plants like cacti and succulents.

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(i) Quantitative Parameters: Köppen’s classification uses quantitative data such as temperature and precipitation, making it more objective and precise compared to the qualitative Greek system.

(ii) Global Applicability: Köppen’s system can be applied to various regions and climates around the world, whereas the Greek system was originally designed for the Mediterranean region.

(iii) Consideration of Multiple Factors: Köppen’s system considers multiple climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, and vegetation, providing a more comprehensive view of climate conditions.

(iv) Improved Classification: Köppen’s system includes a wider range of climate types, allowing for a more detailed and nuanced classification of climates compared to the Greek system, which had limited categories.


A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system that captures, stores, analyzes, and presents spatial or geographic data. It combines software, hardware, and data to manage, analyze, and display different types of geographical information.

(i) Satellite imagery
(ii) Aerial photography
(iii) GPS data
(iv) Survey data
(v) Census data

Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that provides accurate positioning and timing information. It uses a network of satellites to determine the precise location of a GPS receiver.

Attributes in GIS refer to the non-spatial information or characteristics associated with spatial data. These attributes can include data such as names, addresses, population, temperature, etc.

Map layers in GIS are different sets of spatial data that are stacked on top of each other to create a composite map. Each layer represents a specific theme or type of information, such as roads, buildings, or vegetation.

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Georeferencing is the process of aligning spatial data to a known coordinate system or reference system. It allows different datasets to be integrated and analyzed together accurately.

Map navigation in GIS refers to the ability to move, zoom in, zoom out, and explore a map digitally. It allows users to interact with the map and view different areas of interest.

Digitizing in GIS is the process of converting analog or paper-based maps or data into digital formats. It involves manually tracing or capturing the spatial features and attributes from a physical map or document into a digital format.

(6a) Remote sensing and GIS have a close relationship. Remote sensing involves capturing data about the Earth’s surface from a distance, using sensors on satellites or aircraft. This data is then used in GIS to analyze, visualize, and manage spatial information. Remote sensing provides valuable input data for GIS, while GIS helps in organizing and analyzing remote sensing data.

(i) Urban planning and development
(ii) Environmental management and conservation
(iii) Transportation and logistics
(iv) Natural resource management
(v) Emergency response and disaster management

(i) Hardware: This includes computers, servers, GPS devices, and other physical equipment used to store and process GIS data.

(ii) Software: GIS software allows users to capture, analyze, and visualize spatial data. Examples include ArcGIS, QGIS, and Google Earth.

(iii) Data: GIS relies on various types of data, including satellite imagery, maps, survey data, and demographic data. These datasets are used to create and analyze spatial information.


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