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(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Rugged topography
(ii) Absence of surface drainage
(iii) Depression of varying sizes an d depths
(v) Karst springs
(vi) Tower karsts
(vii) Limestone pavements
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Cave systems
(ii) Underground Lakes and Springs
(iv) Stalactites and stalagmites
(v) Tunnel systems
(vi) Underground waterfalls
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Rich in Mineral Resources: Limestone regions are often abundant in mineral resources. Limestone itself is a valuable rock used in construction, agriculture, and industry. Limestone regions may contain deposits of other minerals such as coal, iron, zinc, and phosphates, which contribute to economic development.
(ii) Fertile Soil: Limestone weathering over time produces fertile soil with high calcium carbonate content. This type of soil is ideal for agriculture, as it provides essential nutrients and helps maintain soil pH levels. Limestone regions often support productive farmland and vibrant ecosystems.
(iii) Water Storage and Supply: Limestone is highly permeable, allowing water to pass through and form underground aquifers. These aquifers act as natural reservoirs, storing water and ensuring a reliable water supply in limestone regions. The porous nature of limestone also facilitates groundwater recharge and reduces surface water runoff, contributing to sustainable water management.
(iv) Scientific exploration: Limestone regions are known for their unique karst landscapes, characterized by sinkholes, underground rivers, and caves. These features provide opportunities for scientific exploration and serves as natural habitats for specialized flora and fauna.
(v) Flood mitigation: Karst systems which is limestone regions are characterised by, can help regulate water flow and mitigate flooding by absorbing excess water during heavy rainfall.
(vi) Tourism and Recreation: Limestone regions often attract tourists due to their scenic beauty and unique geological formations. Caves, cliffs, and underground rivers offer opportunities for activities like cave exploration, rock climbing, hiking, and boating.
(vii) Employment opportunites: Tourism in limestone regions can stimulate local economies, create jobs, and foster environmental awareness and conservation efforts.
(viii) Building Material: Limestone has been used as a building material for centuries. Its durability, aesthetic appeal, and availability make it a preferred choice for constructing structures, monuments, and architectural landmarks. Limestone regions often have an abundant supply of this versatile rock, making it easily accessible for construction
(CHOOSE ANY BEST 3)
(CHOOSE ANY BEST 4)
(i) Lateral erosion is dominant over vertical erosion, resulting in widen of the valley.
(ii) It had wide V-shaped valleys.
(iii) There is the presence of bluffs, river cliffs, meanders, terraces.
(iv) There is increase in the load of river.
(v) The work of the river is mainly transportation of suspensing and solution.
(vi) The velocity is reduced due to the reduction of gradient.
I dey come Chill 🌎
(PICK ANY ONE)
Climate refers to the long-term average weather conditions of a particular region or area. It is determined by various factors such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind patterns, and atmospheric pressure, which persist over a significant period, typically for several decades or more.
Climate can be described as the long-term atmospheric conditions, including temperature, precipitation, wind, and humidity, that are characteristic of a specific region or area. It represents the average weather patterns observed over an extended period, typically spanning decades or more.
Climate refers to the long-term average weather patterns observed in a particular region or on a global scale.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Solar radiation
(ii) Atmospheric composition
(iii) Ocean currents
(iv) Land and water distribution
(v) Altitude and topography
(vi) Greenhouse gases
(viii) Earth’s orbit and axial tilt
(ix) Volcanic activity
(x) Human activities
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) High Temperature: Equatorial regions experience consistently high temperatures throughout the year. Average temperatures range between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). There is minimal seasonal variation in temperature, and it remains relatively constant year-round.
(ii) High Precipitation: Equatorial regions receive abundant rainfall, resulting in a high level of precipitation. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with no distinct dry season.
(iii) High Humidity: Equatorial climates are characterized by high humidity levels. The combination of high temperatures and abundant rainfall leads to a significant amount of moisture in the air. Relative humidity often exceeds 80%, creating a warm and moist environment.
(iv) Dense Vegetation: The equatorial climate fosters the growth of lush and diverse vegetation, including tropical rainforests. The consistent warmth, ample rainfall, and high humidity provide ideal conditions for the growth of a wide variety of plant species. The dense vegetation contributes to the rich biodiversity found in equatorial regions.
(v) High Evaporation and transpiration: Due to the high temperatures and abundant moisture, equatorial regions experience significant evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration refers to the combined process of water evaporation from the surface and transpiration from plants. The warm climate and ample water supply promote this process, leading to high levels of water vapor in the atmosphere.
(vi) Low Pressure and Convectional Rainfall: Equatorial climates are characterized by low atmospheric pressure. The intense solar radiation at the equator causes air to rise rapidly, leading to the formation of low-pressure areas. As the warm air ascends, it cools and condenses, resulting in heavy convectional rainfall.
Weathering is defined as the gradual breaking down or disintegration of rocks by either physical (mechanical) or chemical process. It is a fundamental geologic process that plays a significant role in shaping the Earth’s landscape over long periods of time.
Weathering is the process by which rocks, minerals, and other geological materials are broken down or altered near the Earth’s surface.Weathering is a critical component in understanding the formation of landforms and the development of landscapes.
Frost action: This occurs in polar and temperate regions of the world where rocks on high mountains with cracks or joints collect water or snow in them . When the temperature drops during the night or winter, the water in the cracks freezes and melts during the day or summer. Such repeated freezing and melting widen and deepen the cracks which eventually break-down the rock.
Exfoliation: Exfoliation is a geological process that occurs as a result of mechanical weathering, which involves the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without changing their chemical composition. mechanism behind exfoliation involves the expansion and contraction of rocks in response to temperature changes.
(PICK ANY ONE)
Solar energy is the renewable energy derived from the radiant heat and light emitted by the Sun. It is a clean and sustainable source of power that can be harnessed using technologies like solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity or solar thermal systems to generate heat.
Solar energy refers to the radiant energy emitted by the Sun, which can be harnesses and converted into useful forms of energy such as heat and electricity using photovoltaic cells or solar thermal collectors.
Solar energy refers to the abundant and natural energy produced by the Sun, which can be captured and transformed into usable energy forms.
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Job creation and economic Benefits: The solar energy sector has significant potential for job creation and economic growth. The installation, maintenance, and manufacturing of solar energy systems contribute to employment opportunities and local economic development.
(ii) Low operating costs: Once installed, solar energy systems require very little maintenance or operating costs. As the cost of solar technology continues to decrease, it has become increasingly affordable for individuals and businesses to invest in solar energy systems.
(iii) Environmentally Friendly: Solar energy production has minimal environmental impact compared to traditional energy sources like fossil fuels. It produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, helping to reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change
(iv) Renewable and sustainable: Solar energy is a clean and abundant source of energy that does not deplete natural resources and does not emit harmful pollutants into the environment. This makes it a sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source.
(v) Diverse Applications: Solar energy can be used for various applications. It can generate electricity for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes, provide heat for water heating and space heating, and even power remote areas where access to the grid is limited.
(vi) Energy Independence: Solar energy provides a level of energy independence that is not possible with traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources. It allows individuals and communities to generate their own power and reduces their dependence on centralized power grids.
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Intermittent Energy Source: Solar energy is an intermittent energy source, meaning it is only available during daylight hours and may vary depending on weather conditions. Energy storage systems such as batteries or pumped hydro storage can be used to overcome this challenge and provide a continuous flow of energy.
(ii) High Initial Costs: Although solar energy is cost-effective in the long run, the initial investment required to install solar panels and other equipment can be high, which may deter some individuals or businesses from investing in solar energy systems.
(iii) Land and Space Requirements: Solar energy systems, particularly large-scale solar farms, require a significant amount of land or roof space for installation. This can pose challenges in densely populated areas where suitable land or space may be limited or expensive.
(iv) Resource Limitations: The production of solar panels relies on certain materials, such as silicon, that may have limited availability or face potential supply chain constraints. Increased demand for solar energy could put pressure on these resources, leading to potential price fluctuations or supply challenges.
(v) Grid Integration and Infrastructure: Integrating solar energy into existing power grids can present challenges. The infrastructure may need upgrades to accommodate the intermittent nature of solar power and ensure efficient distribution. Grid stability and balancing supply and demand can be more complex with a significant influx of solar energy.
(vi) Manufacturing and Environmental Impact: The production and disposal of solar panels and other components have environmental implications. The manufacturing process involves energy-intensive activities and the use of certain materials with potential environmental impacts. Proper recycling and waste management practices are crucial to minimize the environmental footprint.