NABTEB Literature 2024 Obj & Prose Answers








(i) Adah experiences cultural shock when she moves to the United Kingdom and grapples with her new “second-class citizen” status, which is a recurring theme in the novel.

(ii) Adah faces cultural shock when she moves in with her husband in London and is greeted with a changed Francis, who seems to have adopted some British mannerisms and sense of humor.

(iii) Adah is shocked to see the tiny, bare room Francis has taken for their accommodations, which is different from her dream of living in the United Kingdom.

(iv) Adah faces discrimination based on her race and gender, which is a cultural shock for her, both from Francis and society.

(v) Adah faces cultural shock when she learns that she will be treated as a “second-class citizen” in England because she is a black immigrant.

(vi) Adah faces cultural shock when she realizes that she is not considered an elite in England, unlike in Lagos, where she had a respectable job and connection to Americans.

Miss Stirling is a significant character in Buchi Emecheta’s “Second-Class Citizen”, playing a crucial role in the development of the plot and Adah’s journey. Here are some key aspects of Miss Stirling’s character and roles:

(ii) Kindness and empathy: Miss Stirling is one of the few characters who shows genuine kindness and understanding towards Adah, making her feel seen and heard.

(ii) Cultural bridge: As a British woman who has lived in Nigeria, Miss Stirling serves as a cultural bridge between Adah’s Nigerian heritage and her new British surroundings.

(iii) Mentorship: Miss Stirling offers guidance and support, helping Adah navigate British society, find employment, and access education.

(iv) Contrast to Francis: Miss Stirling’s warmth and empathy are a stark contrast to Francis’s coldness and neglect, highlighting the gender dynamics and power struggles in Adah’s relationships.

(v) Empowerment: Miss Stirling encourages Adah to assert her independence, pursue her goals, and challenge patriarchal norms, contributing to Adah’s growth and self-discovery.

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(vi) Representation of British culture: Miss Stirling embodies a more inclusive and accepting aspect of British culture, challenging Adah’s initial perceptions and broadening her understanding of the country.

Some examples of irony in Alex Agyei-Agyiri’s “Unexpected Joy at Dawn” are as follows:

(i) Verbal irony: When Mama Orojo says, “Welcome to our new home” in a decrepit and abandoned building, highlighting the contrast between her words and the bleak reality.

(ii) Situational irony: The separation of two siblings due to xenophobic policies, only to be reunited by chance in a foreign country, underscoring the absurdity of such policies.

(iii) Dramatic irony: When Nii Tackie’s Nigerian heritage is revealed, causing tension and conflict, despite his being born and raised in Ghana, highlighting the flaws in nationality and identity.

(iv) Irony of fate: The characters’ experiences with insecurity, violence, and lawlessness in both Ghana and Nigeria, despite the supposed safety and security that borders and nationalism promise.

(iv) Cosmic irony: The decay and death that pervade the novel, symbolizing the failure of pan-Africanism and the collapse of societal ideals, highlighting the disparity between the desired unity and the harsh reality.

In “Unexpected Joy at Dawn”, Alex Agyei-Agyiri explores the theme of political leadership failure through various examples:

(i) The expulsion of Nigerians from Ghana in 1969 and Ghanaians from Nigeria in 1983, highlighting the failure of leadership in both countries.

(ii) Economic decline, corruption, and societal decay in both nations, reflecting leadership’s inability to address pressing issues.

(iii) Xenophobic attacks and violence perpetrated by citizens and governments, demonstrating leadership’s failure to promote unity and cooperation.

(iv) Nii Tackie’s character, a victim of both expulsions, serves as a symbol of the consequences of leadership failures.

(v) The novel critiques the failure of leadership to promote pan-Africanism and unity among African nations.

(vi) The theme emphasizes the need for effective leadership to address societal issues and promote regional harmony.


In Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte masterfully portrays gender and power relationships, challenging conventional Victorian norms and offering a nuanced exploration of human dynamics. Key aspects include:

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(i) Gender roles: Bronte subverts traditional gender expectations, presenting strong and independent female characters like Catherine, while also depicting men like Edgar who defy masculine stereotypes.

(ii) Power dynamics: Heathcliff’s relentless pursuit of revenge exposes the dark underbelly of power struggles, revealing the destructive consequences of unchecked ambition and the limits of human control.

(iii) Social class: The novel highlights the impact of social class on gender roles and relationships, showcasing how societal expectations and economic status shape individual identities and experiences.

(iv) Dialectical structure: Bronte’s use of contrasting settings, characters, and themes creates a rich tapestry of opposing forces, underscoring the complexity and depth of human relationships.

(v) Limited perspectives: The novel demonstrates how individuals’ perceptions are shaped by their biases, experiences, and social positions, emphasizing the importance of empathy and understanding in navigating complex relationships.

Nelly Dean, the narrator and housekeeper at Wuthering Heights, plays a vital role in shaping the novel’s plot and characters. Her character and role offer a unique perspective on the events, relationships, and themes.
Key aspects of Nelly’s character and role include:

(i) Narration: Nelly provides a firsthand account of the events, offering insight into the characters’ thoughts and feelings.

(ii) Relationships: Her connections with Catherine, Heathcliff, and Edgar influence her perspective and narration.

(iii) Bias and objectivity: Nelly’s bias towards certain characters affects her narration, raising questions about reliability and objectivity.

(iv) Influence on the plot: Nelly’s actions, like helping Catherine recover from her illness, demonstrate her impact on the story beyond just narration.

(v) Contrasting perspectives: Nelly’s grounded and compassionate nature contrasts with the more extreme characters, providing a nuanced view of the events.

(vi) Societal commentary: Nelly’s character challenges and reinforces societal norms, such as gender roles and class expectations.

(vii) Loyalty and compassion: Nelly’s unwavering loyalty and compassion serve as a moral anchor, highlighting the importance of empathy and understanding.

Ralph Ellison’s masterful use of narrative techniques in Invisible Man creates a complex and thought-provoking novel that explores themes of identity, racism, and social justice.

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Ellison’s use of a first-person narrative creates a sense of immediacy and intimacy, drawing the reader into the protagonist’s experiences and thoughts. The narrator’s fragmented identity and invisibility make him an unreliable narrator, forcing the reader to question truth and perception.

The novel’s non-linear structure, which jumps between different moments in the protagonist’s life, mirrors the fragmented nature of his identity and experiences. Ellison’s use of symbolism, particularly with the character of the narrator, adds depth and complexity to the narrative, inviting readers to interpret and analyze the text.

The stream-of-consciousness passages offer a glimpse into the protagonist’s inner world, revealing his thoughts, feelings, and emotions in a fluid and unstructured manner. Ellison’s incorporation of allusions to other literary works adds layers of meaning and context to the narrative.

The inclusion of African American folklore and cultural traditions enriches the narrative, providing a sense of cultural heritage and historical context. Ellison’s skillful use of these techniques creates a rich and complex narrative that continues to resonate with readers today, offering insights into the African American experience and the ongoing struggle for social justice.

(i) Mr. Norton;
Mr. Norton is a wealthy and influential white trustee of the college who represents the oppressive and paternalistic system. He patronizes and condescends to black people, expecting gratitude and submission from them.

(ii) Dr. Bledsoe;
Dr. Bledsoe, the college president, is a black man who has compromised his values to maintain his position. He is hypocritical and self-serving, prioritizing the status quo over helping his community. He symbolizes the “token” black leader who serves white interests, perpetuating the systemic oppression of black people.

(iii) Mary Rambo;
Mary Rambo is a kind and compassionate woman who represents the working-class black community. She offers the narrator a sense of safety and belonging, contrasting with the oppressive systems represented by Mr. Norton and Dr. Bledsoe. She symbolizes hope and resilience in the face of oppression, providing a refuge for the narrator from the harsh realities of racism.


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