NECO 2024 Human & Regional Geography (Essays)

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NECO Human Geography Answers

(1a)
(i) Agricultural productivity: The Nile River’s annual flooding brought nutrient-rich silt that made the surrounding land suitable for agriculture, allowing for high food production and supporting a large population. The Nile’s predictable flooding pattern also allowed for the development of a stable and productive agricultural system, making the valley an attractive place for settlement.

(ii) Water security: The Nile provided a reliable source of water for drinking, irrigation, and other uses, which was essential for human survival and settlement. The Nile’s water security allowed for the development of a dense population, as people didn’t have to worry about accessing this essential resource.

(iii) Strategic location: The Nile Valley’s position between Africa, Asia, and Europe made it a hub for trade and cultural exchange, drawing people to the region. The valley’s strategic location allowed for the exchange of goods, ideas, and technologies, making it an attractive place for settlement and contributing to its high population density.

(1b)
(i) Resource depletion: Over-population leads to increased demand for resources like food, water, and energy, causing scarcity and depletion.
(ii) Unemployment and poverty: A large population can lead to high levels of unemployment and poverty, as resources and opportunities become scarce.
(iii) Environmental degradation: Over-population puts pressure on the environment, leading to pollution, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity.
(iv) Increased cost of living: A growing population can drive up housing costs, food prices, and other living expenses, reducing the overall standard of living.

(1c)
(i) Urban planning and infrastructure development: Implementing efficient urban planning strategies and investing in infrastructure development can help accommodate growing populations, reduce strain on resources, and improve living standards.
(ii) Investing in technology and innovation: Investing in technological advancements and innovative solutions can help address the challenges of over-population, such as developing sustainable energy sources, improving agricultural productivity, and creating more efficient resource management systems.

(2a)
(i) Cultural homogenization: Tourism can lead to the loss of local culture and traditions as global brands and chain hotels replace local businesses and authentic experiences. This can result in the erasure of unique cultural identities and the commodification of cultural heritage.

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(ii) Social displacement: Tourism development can displace local communities, especially in areas with high demand for accommodation and infrastructure. This can lead to the displacement of long-term residents, loss of community cohesion, and increased housing costs.

(iii) Economic inequality: Tourism can exacerbate economic inequality as wealth generated by tourism often benefits external investors rather than local communities. This can lead to a lack of economic benefits for local residents and a widening of the income gap.

(iv) Environmental degradation: Tourism can lead to environmental degradation, such as pollution, over-development, and resource depletion, especially in sensitive ecosystems. This can result in the destruction of natural habitats, loss of biodiversity, and decreased environmental quality.

(2b)
(i) Sustainable tourism practices: Encourage responsible travel behaviors, such as reducing waste, respecting local customs, and supporting eco-friendly accommodations. This can include measures like recycling programs, energy-efficient practices, and cultural sensitivity training.

(ii) Community-based tourism: Empower local communities to manage and benefit from tourism development, ensuring that profits stay within the community. This can involve community-led tourism initiatives, local ownership of tourism businesses, and community benefit sharing.

(iii) Regulatory frameworks: Establish and enforce regulations to protect the environment, preserve cultural heritage, and ensure fair labor practices. This can include laws protecting natural resources, cultural heritage sites, and workers’ rights.

(iv) Tourism education and awareness: Educate tourists, tour operators, and local communities about the impacts of tourism and promote responsible tourism practices. This can involve awareness campaigns, training programs, and community engagement initiatives.

(3a)
(i) Lack of infrastructure: Inadequate transportation networks, limited access to electricity and water, and poor telecommunications infrastructure make it difficult to establish and operate industries. This leads to increased production costs, reduced efficiency, and decreased competitiveness.

(ii) Limited access to finance: High interest rates, inadequate financing options, and lack of venture capital make it challenging for industries to access the capital needed to invest in equipment, technology, and human resources. This constrains their ability to grow and compete globally.

(iii) Dependence on primary commodities: Many African countries rely heavily on exporting raw materials, such as oil, minerals, and agricultural products, making them vulnerable to fluctuations in global commodity prices. This exposes them to external shocks, limiting their ability to industrialize and diversify their economies.

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(iv) Brain drain and skills gap: Many African countries face a shortage of skilled workers, as talented individuals emigrate to other regions in search of better opportunities. This deprives industries of the expertise and knowledge needed to drive innovation, productivity, and growth.

(3b)
(i) Invest in infrastructure development: Governments and private investors should prioritize building modern transportation networks (roads, ports, airports), increasing access to electricity and water, and improving telecommunications infrastructure. This will reduce production costs, increase efficiency, and enhance competitiveness.

(ii) Develop financing options: Governments and financial institutions should create financing options tailored to the needs of industries, such as low-interest loans, venture capital funds, and private equity investments. This will enable industries to access the capital needed to invest in equipment, technology, and human resources.

(iii) Diversify economies: Countries should diversify their economies by developing value-added industries that process raw materials, reducing dependence on primary commodities. This can include industries like manufacturing, agro-processing, and services, which can create jobs, increase exports, and drive growth.

(iv) Develop skills and retain talent: Governments and industries should invest in vocational training and education programs to develop the skills of local workers and create opportunities to retain talented individuals. This can include partnerships with foreign universities, training institutes, and industries to transfer knowledge and expertise.

4a) PICK ANY THREE
The distribution of settlements in Nigeria is influenced by various factors, which include:

1.Geographical Features: The physical landscape of Nigeria, including its rivers, mountains, and plains, plays a significant role. Areas with fertile soil, such as the Niger Delta and the Benue Valley, tend to have denser populations due to their suitability for agriculture. Conversely, mountainous regions and areas with poor soil quality are less densely populated.

2.Climate: The climate varies significantly across Nigeria, from the humid tropical climate in the south to the arid climate in the north. The southern regions, with more rainfall and a longer growing season, support dense agricultural settlements. In contrast, the drier northern regions support pastoralism and are less densely populated.

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3.Economic Opportunities: Urban areas and regions with significant economic activities, such as Lagos, Abuja, and Port Harcourt, attract more people due to job opportunities and better living standards. Industrialization, trade, and availability of services in these cities drive migration and settlement.

4.Historical and Cultural Factors: Historical events and cultural practices influence settlement patterns. Certain areas have historically been centers of administration, trade, or religion, leading to higher population concentrations. Cultural practices, such as land inheritance and ethnic group preferences, also affect where people live.

5.Infrastructure and Services: The availability of infrastructure like roads, electricity, water supply, and educational and health services attracts people to certain areas. Regions with better infrastructure and public services tend to have higher population densities compared to those with limited access to these amenities.

(6a)
(i)Promotion of Economic Integration: ECOWAS aims to promote economic cooperation and integration among its member states to foster economic development and stability in the region. This includes the establishment of a common market, customs union, and monetary union.

(ii)Peace and Security: Another objective of ECOWAS is to promote peace, security, and stability within the West African region. The organization works towards resolving conflicts, preventing crises, and promoting democratic governance to ensure peace and security for its member states.

(iii)Promotion of Development: ECOWAS seeks to enhance the economic development and social progress of its member states. This includes initiatives to reduce poverty, improve infrastructure, and promote sustainable development in the region.

(6b)
(i)Political instability and conflicts in some member states, which divert resources and attention away from economic development and integration efforts.
(ii)Lack of effective implementation and enforcement of ECOWAS policies and decisions, due to inadequate institutional capacity and limited resources.

(6c)
(i)Strengthening of ECOWAS’ institutional capacity, including the development of a more robust secretariat and more effective decision-making processes, to enhance implementation and enforcement of policies.
(ii)Increased investment in conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms, including mediation, arbitration, and peacekeeping capabilities, to address political instability and conflicts in member states.

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